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Revision 2687 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Mar 1 02:15:09 2013 UTC (11 years, 2 months ago) by jpye
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Moving reproducible version of bug 567 into models/test directory.
Valgrind test shows invalid memory access in RemoveRelation of data freed in DestroyInstanceParts.
1 jpye 2687 (* ASCEND modelling environment
2     Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Carnegie Mellon University
3    
4     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
5     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
6     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
7     any later version.
8    
9     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
10     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
11     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
12     GNU General Public License for more details.
13    
14     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
15     along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
16     *)(*
17     This file contains some models of Brayton engines and associated cycles,
18     following the development of Çengel & Boles 'Thermodynamcs: An Engineering
19     Approach, 6th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
20    
21     Author: John Pye
22     *)
23    
24     REQUIRE "atoms.a4l";
25     REQUIRE "johnpye/thermo_types.a4c";
26     REQUIRE "johnpye/airprops.a4c";
27     IMPORT "sensitivity/solve";
28    
29     (* first some models of air as an ideal gas *)
30    
31     MODEL ideal_gas_base;
32     M IS_A molar_weight_constant;
33     c_p IS_A specific_heat_capacity;
34     s IS_A specific_entropy;
35     h IS_A specific_enthalpy;
36     v IS_A specific_volume;
37     T IS_A temperature;
38     p IS_A pressure;
39     R IS_A specific_gas_constant;
40    
41     R :== 1{GAS_C} / M;
42     p * v = R * T;
43    
44     METHODS
45     METHOD bound_self;
46     s.lower_bound := -5 {kJ/kg/K};
47     END bound_self;
48     END ideal_gas_base;
49    
50     (*
51     Ideal air assuming ideal gas and constant cp.
52     *)
53     MODEL simple_ideal_air
54     REFINES ideal_gas_base;
55    
56     M :== 28.958600656 {kg/kmol};
57    
58     c_p = 1.005 {kJ/kg/K};
59    
60     T_ref IS_A temperature_constant;
61     p_ref IS_A pressure_constant;
62    
63     s = c_p * ln(T / T_ref) - R * ln(p / p_ref);
64     h = c_p * (T - T_ref);
65    
66     T_ref :== 273.15 {K};
67     p_ref :== 1 {bar};
68    
69     METHODS
70     METHOD on_load;
71     RUN ClearAll;
72     RUN bound_self;
73     FIX T, p;
74     T := 300 {K};
75     p := 1 {bar};
76     END on_load;
77     END simple_ideal_air;
78    
79     (*
80     Ideal air, using a quartic polynomial for c_p as given in Moran & Shapiro
81     4th Ed.
82     *)
83     MODEL ideal_air_poly REFINES ideal_gas_base;
84     M :== 28.958600656 {kg/kmol};
85    
86     a[0..4] IS_A real_constant;
87     a[0] :== 3.653;
88     a[1] :== -1.337e-3{1/K};
89     a[2] :== 3.294e-6{1/K^2};
90     a[3] :== -1.913e-9{1/K^3};
91     a[4] :== 0.2763e-12{1/K^4};
92    
93     T_ref IS_A temperature_constant;
94     p_ref IS_A pressure_constant;
95     h_ref IS_A real_constant;
96     s_ref IS_A real_constant;
97    
98     T_ref :== 300 {K};
99     p_ref :== 1 {bar};
100     h_ref :== -4.40119 {kJ/kg};
101     s_ref :== 0. {kJ/kg/K};
102    
103     c_p * M = 1{GAS_C} * SUM[a[i]*T^i | i IN [0..4]];
104    
105     (h - h_ref) * M = 1{GAS_C} * SUM[a[i]/(i+1) * T^(i+1) | i IN[0..4]];
106    
107     s0 IS_A specific_entropy;
108     s0 = R * (a[0]*ln(T/T_ref) + SUM[a[i]/i * (T - T_ref)^i | i IN[1..4]]) + 1.294559 {kJ/kg/K} + 0.38191663487 {kJ/kg/K};
109    
110     s = s0 - R * ln(p/p_ref);
111    
112     METHODS
113     METHOD bound_self;
114     RUN ideal_gas_base::bound_self;
115     s0.lower_bound := -1e20 {kJ/kg/K};
116     END bound_self;
117     METHOD on_load;
118     RUN ClearAll;
119     RUN bound_self;
120     FIX T, p;
121     T := 200 {K};
122     p := 1 {bar};
123     END on_load;
124     END ideal_air_poly;
125    
126     IMPORT "johnpye/datareader/datareader";
127     MODEL drconf;
128     filename IS_A symbol_constant;
129     format IS_A symbol_constant;
130     parameters IS_A symbol_constant;
131     END drconf;
132    
133     MODEL ideal_air_table REFINES ideal_gas_base;
134     M :== 28.958600656 {kg/kmol};
135    
136     dataparams IS_A drconf;
137     dataparams.filename :== 'johnpye/idealair.csv';
138     dataparams.format :== 'CSV';
139     dataparams.parameters :== '1,4,6';
140    
141     s0 IS_A specific_entropy;
142     u IS_A specific_energy;
143     p_ref IS_A pressure;
144    
145     data: datareader(
146     T : INPUT;
147     u, s0 :OUTPUT;
148     dataparams : DATA
149     );
150    
151     h = u + R * T;
152    
153     s = s0 - R * ln(p/p_ref);
154     END ideal_air_table;
155    
156     (*
157     Thermo properties
158     *)
159     MODEL air_state;
160     air IS_A ideal_air_poly;
161     p ALIASES air.p;
162     T ALIASES air.T;
163     h ALIASES air.h;
164     s ALIASES air.s;
165     v ALIASES air.v;
166     METHODS
167     METHOD default;
168     p := 10{bar};
169     p.nominal := 42 {bar};
170     h := 2000 {kJ/kg};
171    
172     T := 400 {K};
173     v.nominal := 10 {L/kg};
174     s := 4 {kJ/kg/K};
175     END default;
176     METHOD solve;
177     EXTERNAL do_solve(SELF);
178     END solve;
179     METHOD on_load;
180     RUN default_all;
181     FIX p, h;
182     END on_load;
183     END air_state;
184    
185    
186     (* a simple connector that includes calculation of steam properties *)
187     MODEL air_node;
188     state IS_A air_state;
189     p ALIASES state.p;
190     h ALIASES state.h;
191     v ALIASES state.v;
192     T ALIASES state.T;
193     s ALIASES state.s;
194     mdot IS_A mass_rate;
195     METHODS
196     METHOD default;
197     mdot.nominal := 2 {kg/s};
198     END default;
199     METHOD solve;
200     EXTERNAL do_solve(SELF);
201     END solve;
202     METHOD on_load;
203     RUN default; RUN reset; RUN values;
204     FIX p,h;
205     END on_load;
206     END air_node;
207    
208     MODEL air_equipment;
209     inlet "in: inlet air stream" IS_A air_node;
210     outlet "out: outlet air stream" IS_A air_node;
211    
212     inlet.mdot, outlet.mdot ARE_THE_SAME;
213     mdot ALIASES inlet.mdot;
214     END air_equipment;
215    
216    
217     MODEL compressor REFINES air_equipment;
218     NOTES
219     'block' SELF {Simple model of a compressor using isentropic efficiency}
220     END NOTES;
221    
222     dp IS_A delta_pressure;
223     inlet.p + dp = outlet.p;
224    
225     outlet_is IS_A air_state;
226     outlet_is.p, outlet.p ARE_THE_SAME;
227    
228     outlet_is.s, inlet.s ARE_THE_SAME;
229     eta IS_A fraction;
230    
231     r IS_A factor;
232     r * inlet.p = outlet.p;
233    
234     eta_eq:eta * (inlet.h - outlet.h) = (inlet.h - outlet_is.h);
235    
236     (* work done on the environment, will be negative *)
237     Wdot IS_A energy_rate;
238     Wdot_eq:Wdot * eta = mdot * (inlet.h - outlet_is.h);
239    
240     w IS_A specific_energy;
241     w_eq:w = eta * (outlet.h - inlet.h);
242    
243     END compressor;
244    
245     MODEL compressor_test REFINES compressor;
246     (* no equations here *)
247     METHODS
248     METHOD on_load;
249     FIX inlet.T;
250     FIX inlet.p;
251    
252     inlet.T := 300 {K};
253     inlet.p := 1 {bar};
254    
255     FIX r;
256     FIX eta;
257     FIX mdot;
258    
259     r := 8;
260     eta := 0.8;
261     mdot := 1 {kg/s};
262     END on_load;
263     END compressor_test;
264    
265    
266    
267     MODEL gas_turbine REFINES air_equipment;
268     NOTES
269     'block' SELF {Simple turbine model}
270     END NOTES;
271    
272     dp IS_A delta_pressure;
273     inlet.p + dp = outlet.p;
274    
275     outlet_is IS_A air_state;
276     outlet_is.p, outlet.p ARE_THE_SAME;
277     outlet_is.s, inlet.s ARE_THE_SAME;
278    
279     eta IS_A fraction;
280     eta_eq:eta * (inlet.h - outlet_is.h) = (inlet.h - outlet.h);
281    
282     (* work done on the environment, will be positive *)
283     Wdot IS_A energy_rate;
284     Wedot_eq:Wdot = mdot * (inlet.h - outlet.h);
285    
286     w IS_A specific_energy;
287     w_eq:w = inlet.h - outlet.h;
288    
289     r IS_A factor;
290     r * outlet.p = inlet.p;
291    
292     END gas_turbine;
293    
294     MODEL gas_turbine_test REFINES gas_turbine;
295     (* no equations here *)
296     METHODS
297     METHOD on_load;
298     FIX inlet.p;
299     FIX inlet.T;
300     FIX outlet.p;
301     FIX eta;
302     FIX mdot;
303    
304     inlet.p := 15 {bar};
305     inlet.T := 1200 {K};
306     outlet.p := 1 {bar};
307     eta := 0.85;
308     mdot := 1 {kg/s};
309     END on_load;
310     END gas_turbine_test;
311    
312    
313    
314    
315     (*
316     simple model assumes no pressure drop, but heating losses due to
317     flue gas temperature
318     *)
319     MODEL combustor REFINES air_equipment;
320     NOTES
321     'block' SELF {Simple combustion chamber model}
322     END NOTES;
323    
324     inlet.p, outlet.p ARE_THE_SAME;
325     Qdot_fuel IS_A energy_rate;
326     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
327    
328     Qdot = mdot * (outlet.h - inlet.h);
329    
330     eta IS_A fraction;
331     Qdot = eta * Qdot_fuel;
332    
333     qdot_fuel IS_A specific_energy_rate;
334     qdot_fuel * mdot = Qdot_fuel;
335     END combustor;
336    
337     MODEL combustor_test REFINES combustor;
338     (* nothing here *)
339     METHODS
340     METHOD on_load;
341     FIX inlet.p;
342     FIX inlet.T;
343     FIX eta;
344     FIX outlet.T;
345     FIX mdot;
346    
347     inlet.p := 15 {bar};
348     inlet.T := 500 {K};
349    
350     eta := 0.8;
351     outlet.T := 700 {K};
352     mdot := 1 {kg/s};
353     END on_load;
354     END combustor_test;
355    
356    
357    
358     (*
359     this is really simple (fluid props permitting): just work out the heat
360     that must be expelled to get the gas down to a specified temperature
361     *)
362     MODEL dissipator REFINES air_equipment;
363     NOTES
364     'block' SELF {Simple condenser model}
365     END NOTES;
366    
367     inlet.p, outlet.p ARE_THE_SAME;
368     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
369    
370     Qdot = mdot * (outlet.h - inlet.h);
371    
372     END dissipator;
373    
374     MODEL dissipator_test REFINES dissipator;
375     (* nothing here *)
376     METHODS
377     METHOD on_load;
378     FIX inlet.p, inlet.T;
379     FIX outlet.T;
380     FIX mdot;
381    
382     inlet.p := 1 {bar};
383     inlet.T := 500 {K};
384     outlet.T := 300 {K};
385     mdot := 1 {kg/s};
386     END on_load;
387     END dissipator_test;
388    
389    
390     MODEL brayton;
391     NOTES
392     'description' SELF {
393     This is a model of a simple Brayton cycle with
394     irreversible compressor (eta=0.8) and turbine (eta=0.85) operating
395     between 300 K and 1300 K, with a compression ratio of 8 and an
396     assumed inlet pressure of 1 bar. Based on examples 9-5 and 9-6 from
397     Çengel & Boles, 'Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach', 6th Ed,
398     McGraw-Hill, 2008}
399     END NOTES;
400    
401     CO IS_A compressor;
402     TU IS_A gas_turbine;
403     BU IS_A combustor;
404     DI IS_A dissipator;
405    
406     CO.outlet, BU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
407     BU.outlet, TU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
408     TU.outlet, DI.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
409     DI.outlet, CO.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
410     braytonpressureratio IS_A positive_factor;
411     braytonpressureratio * CO.inlet.p = TU.outlet.p;
412    
413     Wdot_CO ALIASES CO.Wdot;
414     Wdot_TU ALIASES TU.Wdot;
415     Wdot IS_A energy_rate;
416     Wdot = Wdot_CO + Wdot_TU;
417    
418     Qdot_BU ALIASES BU.Qdot;
419     Qdot_DI ALIASES DI.Qdot;
420    
421     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
422     Qdot = Qdot_BU + Qdot_DI;
423    
424     Edot IS_A energy_rate;
425     Edot = Wdot - Qdot;
426    
427     eta IS_A fraction;
428     eta = Wdot / Qdot_BU;
429    
430     r_bw IS_A factor;
431     r_bw = -Wdot_CO / Wdot_TU;
432    
433     state[1..4] IS_A air_node;
434     state[1], CO.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
435     state[2], BU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
436     state[3], TU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
437     state[4], DI.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
438    
439     eta_TU ALIASES TU.eta;
440     eta_CO ALIASES CO.eta;
441    
442     METHODS
443     METHOD on_load;
444     FIX CO.eta, TU.eta;
445     CO.eta := 0.8;
446     TU.eta := 0.85;
447     FIX CO.inlet.T, TU.inlet.T;
448     CO.inlet.T := 300 {K};
449     TU.inlet.T := 1300 {K};
450     FIX CO.r;
451     CO.r := 8;
452     FIX CO.inlet.p;
453     CO.inlet.p := 1 {bar};
454     FIX CO.inlet.mdot;
455     CO.inlet.mdot := 1 {kg/s};
456     FIX BU.eta;
457     BU.eta := 1;
458     END on_load;
459     END brayton;
460    
461    
462     (*
463     Regenerator: air-to-air heat exchanger
464    
465     Assumption: fluid on both sides have the same c_p.
466     *)
467     MODEL regenerator REFINES air_equipment;
468     inlet_hot, outlet_hot IS_A air_node;
469    
470     inlet.p, outlet.p ARE_THE_SAME;
471     inlet_hot.p, outlet_hot.p ARE_THE_SAME;
472    
473     inlet_hot.mdot, outlet_hot.mdot ARE_THE_SAME;
474     mdot_hot ALIASES inlet_hot.mdot;
475    
476     (* for perfect eps=1 case: inlet_hot.T, outlet.T ARE_THE_SAME;*)
477    
478     epsilon IS_A fraction;
479    
480     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
481     mdot_min IS_A mass_rate;
482     mdot_min = inlet.mdot + 0.5*(inlet.mdot - inlet_hot.mdot + abs(inlet.mdot - inlet_hot.mdot));
483    
484     Qdot = epsilon * mdot_min * (inlet_hot.h - inlet.h);
485     outlet.h = inlet.h + Qdot/inlet.mdot;
486     outlet_hot.h = inlet_hot.h - Qdot/inlet_hot.mdot;
487     END regenerator;
488    
489     MODEL regenerator_test REFINES regenerator;
490     METHODS
491     METHOD on_load;
492     FIX inlet.mdot, inlet.p, inlet.T;
493     FIX inlet_hot.mdot, inlet_hot.p, inlet_hot.T;
494     inlet.mdot := 1 {kg/s};
495     inlet.p := 1 {bar};
496     inlet.T := 300 {K};
497     inlet_hot.mdot := 1.05 {kg/s};
498     inlet_hot.p := 15 {bar};
499     inlet_hot.T := 500 {K};
500     FIX epsilon;
501     epsilon := 0.8;
502     END on_load;
503     END regenerator_test;
504    
505    
506    
507     MODEL brayton_regenerative;
508     NOTES
509     'description' SELF {
510     This is a model of a regenerative Brayton cycle with
511     irreversible compressor (eta=0.8) and turbine (eta=0.85) operating
512     between 300 K and 1300 K, with a compression ratio of 8 and an
513     assumed inlet pressure of 1 bar. The regenerator effectiveness is
514     0.8.
515    
516     Based on example 9-7 from Çengel & Boles, 'Thermodynamics: An
517     Engineering Approach', 6th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2008}
518     END NOTES;
519    
520     CO IS_A compressor;
521     TU IS_A gas_turbine;
522     BU IS_A combustor;
523     DI IS_A dissipator;
524     RE IS_A regenerator;
525    
526     CO.outlet, RE.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
527     RE.outlet, BU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
528     BU.outlet, TU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
529     TU.outlet, RE.inlet_hot ARE_THE_SAME;
530     RE.outlet_hot, DI.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
531     DI.outlet, CO.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
532    
533     Wdot_CO ALIASES CO.Wdot;
534     Wdot_TU ALIASES TU.Wdot;
535     Wdot IS_A energy_rate;
536     Wdot = Wdot_CO + Wdot_TU;
537    
538     Qdot_BU ALIASES BU.Qdot;
539     Qdot_DI ALIASES DI.Qdot;
540    
541     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
542     Qdot = Qdot_BU + Qdot_DI;
543    
544     Edot IS_A energy_rate;
545     Edot = Wdot - Qdot;
546    
547     eta IS_A factor;
548     eta = Wdot / Qdot_BU;
549    
550     r_bw IS_A factor;
551     r_bw = -Wdot_CO / Wdot_TU;
552    
553     Qdot_RE ALIASES RE.Qdot;
554    
555     eta_TU ALIASES TU.eta;
556     eta_CO ALIASES CO.eta;
557     epsilon_RE ALIASES RE.epsilon;
558    
559     braytonpressureratio ALIASES CO.r;
560     METHODS
561     METHOD on_load;
562     FIX CO.eta, TU.eta;
563     CO.eta := 0.88;
564     TU.eta := 0.85;
565     FIX CO.inlet.T, TU.inlet.T;
566     CO.inlet.T := 300 {K};
567     TU.inlet.T := 1300 {K};
568     FIX CO.r;
569     CO.r := 4.5;
570     FIX CO.inlet.p;
571     CO.inlet.p := 1 {bar};
572     FIX CO.inlet.mdot;
573     CO.inlet.mdot := 1 {kg/s};
574     FIX BU.eta;
575     BU.eta := 1;
576     FIX RE.epsilon;
577     RE.epsilon := 0.8;
578     END on_load;
579     END brayton_regenerative;
580    
581    
582    
583    
584     MODEL brayton_intercool_reheat_regen;
585     NOTES
586     'description' SELF {
587     This is a model of a Brayton cycle with intercooling, reheating, and
588     regeneration.
589    
590     It has an irreversible compressor (eta=0.8) and turbine (eta=0.85)
591     and operates between 300 K and 1300 K, with a compression ratio of 8
592     and an assumed inlet pressure of 1 bar. The regenerator
593     effectiveness is 0.8.
594    
595     In adding the intercooling and reheating stages, we assume an
596     intermediate pressure that results in two compression stages of
597     equal pressure ratio, and two turbine stages of equal pressure
598     ratio.
599    
600     Based on example 9-8 from Çengel & Boles, 'Thermodynamics: An
601     Engineering Approach', 6th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2008}
602     END NOTES;
603    
604     CO1, CO2 IS_A compressor;
605     TU1, TU2 IS_A gas_turbine;
606     BU IS_A combustor;
607     DI IS_A dissipator;
608     RE IS_A regenerator;
609     IC IS_A dissipator;
610     RH IS_A combustor;
611    
612     CO1.outlet, IC.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
613     IC.outlet, CO2.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
614     CO2.outlet, RE.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
615     RE.outlet, BU.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
616     BU.outlet, TU1.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
617     TU1.outlet, RH.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
618     RH.outlet, TU2.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
619     TU2.outlet, RE.inlet_hot ARE_THE_SAME;
620     RE.outlet_hot, DI.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
621     DI.outlet, CO1.inlet ARE_THE_SAME;
622    
623     Wdot_CO1 ALIASES CO1.Wdot;
624     Wdot_CO2 ALIASES CO2.Wdot;
625     Wdot_TU1 ALIASES TU1.Wdot;
626     Wdot_TU2 ALIASES TU2.Wdot;
627    
628     Wdot_CO, Wdot_TU, Wdot IS_A energy_rate;
629     Wdot_CO = Wdot_CO1 + Wdot_CO2;
630     Wdot_TU = Wdot_TU1 + Wdot_TU2;
631     Wdot = Wdot_CO + Wdot_TU;
632    
633     Qdot_BU ALIASES BU.Qdot;
634     Qdot_DI ALIASES DI.Qdot;
635     Qdot_IC ALIASES IC.Qdot;
636     Qdot_RH ALIASES RH.Qdot;
637    
638     Qdot IS_A energy_rate;
639     Qdot = Qdot_BU + Qdot_DI + Qdot_IC + Qdot_RH;
640    
641     Edot IS_A energy_rate;
642     Edot = Wdot - Qdot;
643    
644     eta IS_A factor;
645     eta = Wdot / Qdot_BU;
646    
647     CO1.r = CO2.r;
648     TU1.r = TU2.r;
649    
650     RH.outlet.T = BU.outlet.T;
651     IC.outlet.T = DI.outlet.T;
652    
653     r IS_A factor;
654     r = CO2.outlet.p / CO1.inlet.p;
655    
656     r_bw IS_A factor;
657     r_bw = -Wdot_CO / Wdot_TU;
658    
659     Qdot_RE ALIASES RE.Qdot;
660    
661     eta_TU1 ALIASES TU1.eta;
662     eta_TU2 ALIASES TU2.eta;
663     eta_CO1 ALIASES CO1.eta;
664     eta_CO2 ALIASES CO2.eta;
665     epsilon_RE ALIASES RE.epsilon;
666     METHODS
667     METHOD on_load;
668     FIX CO1.eta, CO2.eta, TU1.eta, TU2.eta;
669     CO1.eta := 0.8;
670     CO2.eta := 0.8;
671     TU1.eta := 0.85;
672     TU2.eta := 0.85;
673     FIX CO1.inlet.T, TU1.inlet.T;
674     CO1.inlet.T := 300 {K};
675     TU1.inlet.T := 1300 {K};
676     FIX r;
677     r := 8;
678     FIX CO1.inlet.p;
679     CO1.inlet.p := 1 {bar};
680     FIX CO1.inlet.mdot;
681     CO1.inlet.mdot := 1 {kg/s};
682     FIX BU.eta, RH.eta;
683     BU.eta := 1;
684     RH.eta := 1;
685     FIX RE.epsilon;
686     RE.epsilon := 0.8;
687     END on_load;
688     END brayton_intercool_reheat_regen;
689    
690    
691    
692    

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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