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Revision 837 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Sep 8 06:40:59 2006 UTC (15 years, 9 months ago) by johnpye
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File size: 10971 byte(s)
Added youngs_modulus and second_moment_of_area to atoms.a4l.
Added GPa to measures.
1 PROVIDE "measures.a4l";
2
3 (*
4 * measures.a4l
5 * by Tom Epperly and Ben Allan
6 * Part of the ASCEND Library
7 * $Date: 1998/08/17 13:07:04 $
8 * $Revision: 1.5 $
9 * $Author: ballan $
10 * $Source: /afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/ascend/Repository/models/measures.a4l,v $
11 *
12 * This file is part of the ASCEND Modeling Library.
13 *
14 * This provides common unit definitions. The user may write additional
15 * files of unit definitions particular to their problem or site.
16 *
17 * Copyright (C) 1997 Carnegie Mellon University.
18 *
19 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
20 * it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
21 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
22 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
23 *
24 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it will be
25 * useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
26 * warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
27 * See the GNU General Public License for more details.
28 *
29 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
30 * along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
31 * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA. Check
32 * the file named COPYING.
33 *)
34
35 (*
36 * Units input file
37 * by Tom Epperly
38 * Copyright(C) 1990 Thomas Guthrie Epperly
39 * Copyright(C) 1994-1997 Carnegie Mellon University
40 *
41 * This is a file defining the conversion factors ASCEND will recognize when
42 * it sees them as {units). Note that the assignment x:= 0.5 {100};; yields
43 * x == 50, and that there are no 'offset conversions,' e.g. F=9/5C+32;
44 * Added money which isn't really time 3-94 BAA
45 * Expanded, including some of Karl's units, constants. 4-94 BAA
46 * Updated with supplementary SI dimensions and less ambiguous mole dim. jz/baa
47 *
48 * Please keep unit names to 20 characters or less as this makes life pretty.
49 * This is not a hard limit however.
50 *
51 * The root system units in SI MKS system are set in the C code to:
52 * unitname DIMENSION
53 * define kilogram M; internal mass unit SI
54 * define mole Q; internal quantity unit SI
55 * define second T; internal time unit SI
56 * define meter L; internal length unit SI
57 * define Kelvin TMP; internal temperature unit SI
58 * define currency C; internal currency unit
59 * define ampere E; internal electric current unit SI suggested
60 * define candela LUM; internal luminous intensity unit SI
61 * define radian P; internal plane angle unit SI suggested
62 * define steradian S; internal solid angle unit SI suggested
63 *)
64
65 UNITS
66
67 (* distance *)
68
69 pc = {3.08374e+16*meter};
70 parsec = {pc};
71 kpc = {1000*pc};
72 Mpc = {1e6*pc};
73 km = {meter*1000};
74 m = {meter};
75 dm = {meter/10};
76 cm = {meter/100};
77 mm = {meter/1000};
78 um = {meter/1000000};
79 nm = {1.e-9*meter};
80 kilometer = {km};
81 centimeter = {cm};
82 millimeter = {mm};
83 micron = {um};
84 nanometer = {nm};
85 angstrom = {m/1e10};
86 fermi = {m/1e15};
87
88 mi = {1609.344*meter};
89 yd = {0.914412*meter};
90 ft = {0.304804*meter};
91 inch = {0.0254*meter};
92 mile = {mi};
93 yard = {yd};
94 feet = {ft};
95 foot = {ft};
96 in = {inch};
97
98 (* mass *)
99
100 kg = {kilogram};
101 g = {kilogram/1000};
102 gram = {g};
103 mg = {g/1000};
104 milligram = {mg};
105 ug= {kilogram*1e-9};
106 microgram= {ug};
107 ng= {kilogram*1e-12};
108 nanogram= {ng};
109 pg= {kilogram*1e-15};
110 picogram= {pg};
111
112 tonne = {kilogram *1000}; (* reference on tonne: http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/appenB8.html *)
113 t = {tonne};
114 kilotonne = {tonne*1000};
115 kt = {kilotonne};
116 megatonne = {tonne*1e6};
117 Mt = {megatonne};
118 gigatonne = {tonne*1e9};
119 Gt = {gigatonne};
120
121 amu = {1.661e-27*kilogram};
122 lbm = {4.535924e-1*kilogram};
123 ton = {lbm*2000};
124 oz = {0.028349525*kilogram};
125 slug = {14.5939*kilogram};
126
127 (* time *)
128
129 yr = {31557600*second};
130 wk = {604800*second};
131 d = {86400*second};
132 h = {3600*second};
133 min = {60*second};
134 sec = {second};
135 s = {second};
136 ms = {second/1000};
137 us = {second/1e6};
138 ns = {second/1e9};
139 ps = {second/1e12};
140 year = {yr};
141 week = {wk};
142 day = {d};
143 hour = {h};
144 hr={h};
145 minute = {min};
146 millisecond = {ms};
147 microsecond = {us};
148 nanosecond = {ns};
149 picosecond = {ps};
150
151 (* molecular quantities *)
152
153 kg_mole= {1000*mole};
154 g_mole = {mole};
155 gm_mole = {mole};
156 kmol = {1000*mole};
157 mol = {mole};
158 mmol = {mole/1000};
159 millimole= {mmol};
160 umol = {mole/1e6};
161 micromole= {umol};
162 lb_mole = {4.535924e+2*mole};
163
164 (* temperature *)
165
166 K = {Kelvin};
167 R = {5*Kelvin/9};
168 Rankine = {R};
169
170 (* money *)
171
172 (* PLEASE USE ISO 4127 CURRENCY CODES FOR ALL MONEY UNITS *)
173 USD = {currency};
174 CR = {currency};
175 credits= {currency};
176 (* the following two are historic and should not be used in future *)
177 USdollar = {currency};
178 US = {currency};
179
180 (* reciprocal time (frequency) *)
181
182 rev = {1.0};
183 cycle = {rev};
184 rpm = {rev/minute};
185 rps = {rev/second};
186 hertz = {cycle/second};
187 Hz = {hertz};
188
189 (* area *)
190
191 ha = {meter^2*10000};
192 hectare= {ha};
193 acre= {meter^2*4046.856};
194
195 (* volume *)
196
197 L = {meter^3/1000};
198 l = {L};
199 litre = {L};
200 liter = {L};
201 mL = {L/1000};
202 ml = {L/1000};
203 ul = {L/1e6};
204 uL = {L/1e6};
205 milliliter = {ml};
206 millilitre = {mL};
207 microliter = {ul};
208 microlitre = {uL};
209
210 hogshead= {2.384809e-1*meter^3};
211 cuft = {0.02831698*meter^3};
212 impgal = {4.52837e-3*meter^3};
213 gal = {3.785412e-3*meter^3};
214 barrel = {42.0*gal};
215 gallon = {gal};
216 quart = {gal/4};
217 pint = {gal/8};
218 cup = {gal/16};
219 floz = {gal/128};
220
221 (* force *)
222
223 N = {kilogram*meter/second^2};
224 newton = {N};
225 dyne = {N*1.0e-5};
226 EN = {1e18*N};
227 PN = {1e15*N};
228 TN = {1e12*N};
229 GN = {1e9*N};
230 MN = {1e6*N};
231 kN = {1000*N};
232 mN= {N*1e-3};
233 uN= {N*1e-6};
234 nN= {N*1e-9};
235 pN= {N*1e-12};
236 fN= {N*1e-15};
237 aN= {N*1e-18};
238 milliNewton= {mN};
239 microNewton= {uN};
240 nanoNewton= {nN};
241 picoNewton= {pN};
242 femtoNewton= {fN};
243 attoNewton= {aN};
244
245 lbf = {N*4.448221};
246
247 (* pressure *)
248
249 Pa = {kilogram/meter/second^2};
250 pascal = {Pa};
251 kPa = {1e3*Pa};
252 bar = {1e5*Pa};
253 MPa = {1e6*Pa};
254 GPa = {1e9*Pa};
255
256 atm = {Pa*101325.0};
257 mmHg = {133.322*Pa};
258 torr = {133.322*Pa};
259 psia = {6894.733*Pa};
260 psi = {psia};
261 ftH2O = {2989*Pa};
262
263 (* energy *)
264
265 J = {kilogram*meter^2/second^2};
266 joule = {J};
267 MJ = {J * 1000000};
268 kJ = {J * 1000};
269 mJ= {J*1.0e-3};
270 uJ= {J*1.0e-6};
271 nJ= {J*1.0e-9};
272 milliJoule= {mJ};
273 microJoule= {uJ};
274 nanoJoule= {nJ};
275 erg = {J*1.0e-7};
276
277 BTU = {1055.056*J};
278 pCu = {BTU * 1.8};
279 cal = {J*4.18393};
280 calorie = {cal};
281 kcal= {1000*calorie};
282 Cal= {1000*calorie};
283
284 (* power *)
285
286 W = {J/second};
287 EW = {1.0e+18*W};
288 PW = {1.0e+15*W};
289 TW = {1.0e+12*W};
290 GW = {1.0e+9*W};
291 MW = {1.0e+6*W};
292 kW = {1000*W};
293 mW = {W/1e3};
294 uW = {W/1e6};
295 nW = {W/1e9};
296 pW = {W/1e12};
297 fW = {W/1e15};
298 aW = {W/1e18};
299 terawatt = {TW};
300 gigawatt = {GW};
301 megawatt = {MW};
302 kilowatt = {kW};
303 watt = {W};
304 milliwatt = {mW};
305 microwatt = {uW};
306 nanowatt = {nW};
307 picowatt = {pW};
308 femtowatt = {fW};
309 attowatt = {aW};
310 aWW= {1*EW}; (* we could say art has a lot of power *)
311
312 hp= {7.456998e+2*W};
313
314 (* absolute viscosity *)
315
316 poise = {Pa*s/10};
317 cP = {poise/100};
318
319 (* electric charge *)
320
321 coulomb= {ampere*second};
322 C = {coulomb};
323 coul = {coulomb};
324 mC = {0.001*C};
325 uC = {1e-6*C};
326 nC = {1e-9*C};
327 pC = {1e-12*C};
328
329 (* misc electro-magnetic fun *)
330
331 V = {kilogram*meter^2/second^3/ampere};
332 F = {ampere^2*second^4/kilogram/meter^2};
333 ohm = {kilogram*meter^2/second^3/ampere^2};
334 mho = {ampere^2*second^3/kilogram/meter^2};
335 S = {mho};
336 siemens = {S};
337 A= {ampere};
338 amp = {ampere};
339 volt = {V};
340 farad= {F};
341 mA= {A/1000};
342 uA= {A/1000000};
343 kV= {1000*V};
344 MV= {1e6*V};
345 mV= {V/1000};
346 mF = {0.001*F};
347 uF = {1e-6*F};
348 nF = {1e-9*F};
349 pF = {1e-12*F};
350 kohm = {1000*ohm};
351 Mohm = {1e6*ohm};
352 kS = {1000*S};
353 mS = {0.001*S};
354 uS = {1e-6*S};
355 Wb = {V*second};
356 weber = {Wb};
357 tesla = {Wb/m^2};
358 gauss = {1e-4*tesla};
359 H = {Wb/A};
360 henry = {H};
361 mH = {0.001*H};
362 uH = {1e-6*H};
363
364 (*
365 * numeric constants of some interest
366 * to set a variable or constant to these, the code is (in the declarations)
367 * ATOM constant REFINES real; END constant;
368 * MODEL gizmo;
369 * x IS_A constant;
370 * x := 1 {PI};
371 * ...
372 *)
373 molecule = {1.0};
374 PI= {3.1415926535897932385}; (* Circumference/Diameter ratio *)
375 EULER_C = {0.57721566490153286}; (* euler gamma *)
376 GOLDEN_C = {1.618033988749894}; (* golden ratio *)
377 HBAR = {1.055e-34*J*second}; (* Reduced planck's constant *)
378 PLANCK_C = {2*PI*HBAR}; (* Planck's constant *)
379 LIGHT_C = {2.99793e8 * meter/second}; (* Speed of light in vacuum *)
380 MU0 = {4e-7*PI*kg*m/C/C}; (* Permeability of free space *)
381 EPSILON0 = {1/LIGHT_C/LIGHT_C/MU0}; (* Permittivity of free space *)
382 BOLTZMAN_C = {1.3805e-23 * J/K}; (* Boltzman's constant *)
383 SIGMA_C = {5.670e-8 * W/m^2/K^4 }; (* Stefan-Boltzmann constant
384 - blackbody radiation *)
385 AVOGADRO_C = {6.022045e23 *molecule/mole};(* Avogadro's number of molecules *)
386 GRAVITY_C = {6.673e-11 * N*m*m/kg/kg}; (* Newtons gravitational constant *)
387 GAS_C = {BOLTZMAN_C*AVOGADRO_C}; (* Gas constant *)
388 INFINITY= {1.0e38}; (* damn big number *)
389 LIM_EXP= {709.78}; (* ln ( maxdouble ) *)
390 LIM_CUBE= {5.6438030941223618e101}; (* cbrt ( maxdouble ) *)
391 LIM_SQR= {1.0e154}; (* sqrt(maxdouble) *)
392
393 (* The following were swiped from C <math.h> *)
394 M_E= {2.7182818284590452354E0}; (* base e *)
395 M_LOG2E= {1.4426950408889634074E0}; (* log2(e) *)
396 M_LOG10E= {4.3429448190325182765E-1}; (* log10(e) *)
397 M_LN2= {6.9314718055994530942E-1}; (* ln(2) *)
398 M_LN10= {2.3025850929940456840E0}; (* ln(10) *)
399 M_PI= {3.1415926535897932385E0}; (* as PI, but for consistency *)
400 M_PI_2= {1.5707963267948966192E0}; (* PI/2 *)
401 M_PI_4= {7.8539816339744830962E-1}; (* PI/4 *)
402 M_1_PI= {3.1830988618379067154E-1}; (* 1/PI *)
403 M_2_PI= {6.3661977236758134308E-1}; (* 2/PI *)
404 M_2_SQRTPI= {1.1283791670955125739E0}; (* 2/sqrt(PI) *)
405 M_SQRT2= {1.4142135623730950488E0}; (* sqrt(2) *)
406 M_SQRT1_2= {7.0710678118654752440E-1}; (* 1/sqrt(2) *)
407
408 eCHARGE = {1.602e-19*C}; (* Charge of an electron *)
409 EARTH_G = {9.80665 * m/s/s}; (* Earth's gravitational field, somewhere *)
410 eMASS = {9.1095e-31*kilogram}; (* Electron rest mass, I suppose *)
411 pMASS = {1.67265e-27*kilogram}; (* Proton mass *)
412
413 (* constant based conversions *)
414
415 eV = {eCHARGE * V};
416 keV = {1000*eV};
417 MeV = {1e6*eV};
418 GeV = {1e9*eV};
419 TeV = {1e12*eV};
420 PeV = {1e15*eV};
421 EeV = {1e18*eV};
422
423 lyr = {LIGHT_C * yr}; (* Light-year *)
424
425 oersted = {gauss/MU0};
426
427 (* subtly dimensionless measures *)
428
429 rad = {radian};
430 srad = {steradian};
431 deg = {radian*1.74532925199433e-2};
432 degrees = {deg};
433 grad = {0.9*deg};
434 arcmin = {degrees/60.0};
435 arcsec = {arcmin/60.0};
436
437 (* light quantities *)
438
439 cd = {candela};
440 lm = {candela*steradian};
441 lumen = {lm};
442 lx = {lm/meter^2};
443 lux= {lx};
444
445 (* misc rates *)
446
447 gpm = {gallon/minute};
448
449 (* time variant conversions *)
450
451 MINIMUMWAGE = {5.15*USD/h}; (* Dec 2005, see http://www.dol.gov/ *)
452 (*
453 * conversions we'd like to see , but probably won't
454 * milliHelen = {beauty/ship};
455 * Helen = {documentation/project};
456 *)
457 END UNITS;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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