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Revision 1703 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jan 6 04:11:10 2008 UTC (16 years, 5 months ago) by jpye
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standardised measures.a4l a little further.
1 (* ASCEND modelling environment
2 Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Carnegie Mellon University
3 Copyright (C) 1994-1997 Carnegie Mellon University
4 Copyright (C) 1990 Thomas Guthrie Epperly
5
6 The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
7 it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
8 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
9 version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
10
11 The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it
12 will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
13 warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
14 See the GNU General Public License for more details.
15
16 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17 along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
18 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
19 *)
20 PROVIDE "measures.a4l";
21 (*
22 This provides common unit definitions. The user may write additional
23 files of unit definitions particular to their problem or site.
24
25 This is a file defining the conversion factors ASCEND will recognize when
26 it sees them as {units}. Note that the assignment "x := 0.5 {100}" yields
27 x == 50, and that there are no 'offset conversions', e.g. "F=9/5C+32".
28
29 Please keep unit names to 20 characters or less as this makes life pretty.
30 This is not a hard limit however.
31
32 All ASCEND units are built up from base units for each dimension of
33 measurement. The base units are mostly the Systeme Internationale base
34 units, with a few additional ones to aid with legibility/checkability.
35
36 Unit Dim code Dimension Source
37 kg M mass SI
38 mol Q amount of substance SI
39 s T time SI
40 m L length SI
41 K TMP temperature SI
42 USD C currency non SI
43 A E electric current SI
44 cd LUM luminous intensity SI
45 rad P plane angle SI suggested
46 sr S solid angle SI suggested
47
48 Units for currency are selected arbitrarily to be USD, for US dollars,
49 being the dominant international currency at this time.
50
51 Original author: Tom Epperly, 1990.
52 Contributors: Ben Allan, John Pye.
53 *)
54
55 UNITS
56
57 (* distance *)
58
59 meter = {m};
60 pc = {3.08374e+16*m};
61 parsec = {pc};
62 kpc = {1000*pc};
63 Mpc = {1e6*pc};
64 km = {m*1000};
65 m = {m};
66 dm = {m/10};
67 cm = {m/100};
68 mm = {m/1000};
69 um = {m/1000000};
70 nm = {1.e-9*m};
71 kilometer = {km};
72 centimeter = {cm};
73 millimeter = {mm};
74 micron = {um};
75 nanometer = {nm};
76 angstrom = {m/1e10};
77 fermi = {m/1e15};
78
79 mi = {1609.344*m};
80 yd = {0.914412*m};
81 ft = {0.304804*m};
82 inch = {0.0254*m};
83 mile = {mi};
84 yard = {yd};
85 feet = {ft};
86 foot = {ft};
87 in = {inch};
88
89 (* mass *)
90
91 kilogram = {kg};
92 g = {kg/1000};
93 gram = {g};
94 mg = {g/1000};
95 milligram = {mg};
96 ug= {kilogram*1e-9};
97 microgram= {ug};
98 ng= {kilogram*1e-12};
99 nanogram= {ng};
100 pg= {kilogram*1e-15};
101 picogram= {pg};
102
103 tonne = {kilogram *1000}; (* reference on tonne: http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/appenB8.html *)
104 t = {tonne};
105 kilotonne = {tonne*1000};
106 kt = {kilotonne};
107 megatonne = {tonne*1e6};
108 Mt = {megatonne};
109 gigatonne = {tonne*1e9};
110 Gt = {gigatonne};
111
112 amu = {1.661e-27*kilogram};
113 lbm = {4.535924e-1*kilogram};
114 ton = {lbm*2000};
115 oz = {0.028349525*kilogram};
116 slug = {14.5939*kilogram};
117
118 (* time *)
119
120 second = {s};
121 yr = {31557600*s};
122 wk = {604800*s};
123 d = {86400*s};
124 h = {3600*s};
125 min = {60*s};
126 sec = {s};
127 ms = {s/1000};
128 us = {s/1e6};
129 ns = {s/1e9};
130 ps = {s/1e12};
131 year = {yr};
132 week = {wk};
133 day = {d};
134 hour = {h};
135 hr={h};
136 minute = {min};
137 millisecond = {ms};
138 microsecond = {us};
139 nanosecond = {ns};
140 picosecond = {ps};
141
142 (* molecular quantities *)
143
144 mole = {mol};
145 kg_mole= {1000*mol};
146 g_mole = {mol};
147 gm_mole = {mol};
148 kmol = {1000*mol};
149 mol = {mol};
150 mmol = {mol/1000};
151 millimole= {mmol};
152 umol = {mol/1e6};
153 micromole= {umol};
154 lb_mole = {4.535924e+2*mol};
155
156 (* temperature *)
157
158 Kelvin = {K};
159 R = {5*K/9};
160 Rankine = {R};
161
162 (* money *)
163
164 (* PLEASE USE ISO 4127 CURRENCY CODES FOR ALL MONEY UNITS *)
165 currency = {USD};
166 CR = {USD};
167 credits= {USD};
168 (* the following two are historic and should not be used in future *)
169 USdollar = {USD};
170 US = {USD};
171
172 (* currencies according to yahoo.com, as at 11 Sep 2006 *)
173 AUD = {0.752400*USD};
174 GBP = {1.865000*USD};
175 EUR = {1.266499*USD};
176 JPY = {0.00856091*USD};
177
178 (* reciprocal time (frequency) *)
179
180 rev = {1.0};
181 cycle = {rev};
182 rpm = {rev/minute};
183 rps = {rev/second};
184 hertz = {cycle/second};
185 Hz = {hertz};
186
187 (* area *)
188
189 ha = {m^2*10000};
190 hectare= {ha};
191 acre= {m^2*4046.856};
192
193 (* volume *)
194
195 L = {m^3/1000};
196 l = {L};
197 litre = {L};
198 liter = {L};
199 mL = {L/1000};
200 ml = {L/1000};
201 ul = {L/1e6};
202 uL = {L/1e6};
203 milliliter = {ml};
204 millilitre = {mL};
205 microliter = {ul};
206 microlitre = {uL};
207
208 hogshead= {2.384809e-1*m^3};
209 cuft = {0.02831698*m^3};
210 impgal = {4.52837e-3*m^3};
211 gal = {3.785412e-3*m^3};
212 barrel = {42.0*gal};
213 gallon = {gal};
214 quart = {gal/4};
215 pint = {gal/8};
216 cup = {gal/16};
217 floz = {gal/128};
218
219 (* force *)
220
221 N = {kg*m/s^2};
222 newton = {N};
223 dyne = {N*1.0e-5};
224 EN = {1e18*N};
225 PN = {1e15*N};
226 TN = {1e12*N};
227 GN = {1e9*N};
228 MN = {1e6*N};
229 kN = {1000*N};
230 mN= {N*1e-3};
231 uN= {N*1e-6};
232 nN= {N*1e-9};
233 pN= {N*1e-12};
234 fN= {N*1e-15};
235 aN= {N*1e-18};
236 milliNewton= {mN};
237 microNewton= {uN};
238 nanoNewton= {nN};
239 picoNewton= {pN};
240 femtoNewton= {fN};
241 attoNewton= {aN};
242
243 lbf = {N*4.448221};
244 tonnef = {9.8* N/kg * 1 * t};
245 kgf = {9.8*N/kg * 1 * kg};
246
247 (* pressure *)
248
249 Pa = {kg/m/s^2};
250 pascal = {Pa};
251 kPa = {1e3*Pa};
252 bar = {1e5*Pa};
253 mbar = {1e2*Pa};
254 MPa = {1e6*Pa};
255 GPa = {1e9*Pa};
256
257 atm = {Pa*101325.0};
258 mmHg = {133.322*Pa};
259 torr = {133.322*Pa};
260 psia = {6894.733*Pa};
261 psi = {psia};
262 ftH2O = {2989*Pa};
263
264 (* energy *)
265
266 J = {kg*m^2/s^2};
267 joule = {J};
268 nJ= {J*1.0e-9};
269 uJ= {J*1.0e-6};
270 mJ= {J*1.0e-3};
271 kJ = {J * 1000};
272 MJ = {J * 1e6};
273 GJ = {J * 1e9};
274 TJ = {J * 1e12};
275 PJ = {J * 1e15};
276 milliJoule= {mJ};
277 microJoule= {uJ};
278 nanoJoule= {nJ};
279 erg = {J*1.0e-7};
280
281 BTU = {1055.056*J};
282 btu = {BTU}; (* this is the way it's written in most textbooks *)
283 pCu = {BTU * 1.8};
284 cal = {J*4.18393};
285 calorie = {cal};
286 kcal= {1000*cal};
287 Cal= {1000*cal};
288
289 (* power *)
290
291 W = {J/s};
292 EW = {1.0e+18*W};
293 PW = {1.0e+15*W};
294 TW = {1.0e+12*W};
295 GW = {1.0e+9*W};
296 MW = {1.0e+6*W};
297 kW = {1000*W};
298 mW = {W/1e3};
299 uW = {W/1e6};
300 nW = {W/1e9};
301 pW = {W/1e12};
302 fW = {W/1e15};
303 aW = {W/1e18};
304 terawatt = {TW};
305 gigawatt = {GW};
306 megawatt = {MW};
307 kilowatt = {kW};
308 watt = {W};
309 milliwatt = {mW};
310 microwatt = {uW};
311 nanowatt = {nW};
312 picowatt = {pW};
313 femtowatt = {fW};
314 attowatt = {aW};
315 aWW= {1*EW}; (* <geekjok>we could say art has a lot of power</geekjoke> *)
316
317 Wh = {W*h};
318 kWh = {kW*h};
319
320 hp= {7.456998e+2*W};
321
322 (* absolute viscosity *)
323
324 poise = {Pa*s/10};
325 cP = {poise/100};
326
327 (* electric charge *)
328
329 C = {A*s};
330 coulomb = {C};
331 coul = {C};
332 mC = {0.001*C};
333 uC = {1e-6*C};
334 nC = {1e-9*C};
335 pC = {1e-12*C};
336
337 (* misc electro-magnetic fun *)
338
339 V = {kg*m^2/s^3/A};
340 F = {A^2*s^4/kg/m^2};
341 ohm = {kg*m^2/s^3/A^2};
342 mho = {A^2*s^3/kg/m^2};
343 S = {mho};
344 siemens = {S};
345 ampere = {A};
346 amp = {A};
347 volt = {V};
348 farad= {F};
349 mA= {A/1000};
350 uA= {A/1000000};
351 kV= {1000*V};
352 MV= {1e6*V};
353 mV= {V/1000};
354 mF = {0.001*F};
355 uF = {1e-6*F};
356 nF = {1e-9*F};
357 pF = {1e-12*F};
358 kohm = {1000*ohm};
359 Mohm = {1e6*ohm};
360 kS = {1000*S};
361 mS = {0.001*S};
362 uS = {1e-6*S};
363 Wb = {V*second};
364 weber = {Wb};
365 tesla = {Wb/m^2};
366 gauss = {1e-4*tesla};
367 H = {Wb/A};
368 henry = {H};
369 mH = {0.001*H};
370 uH = {1e-6*H};
371
372 (*
373 * numeric constants of some interest
374 * to set a variable or constant to these, the code is (in the declarations)
375 * ATOM constant REFINES real; END constant;
376 * MODEL gizmo;
377 * x IS_A constant;
378 * x := 1 {PI};
379 * ...
380 *)
381 molecule = {1.0};
382 PI= {3.1415926535897932385}; (* Circumference/Diameter ratio *)
383 EULER_C = {0.57721566490153286}; (* euler gamma *)
384 GOLDEN_C = {1.618033988749894}; (* golden ratio *)
385 HBAR = {1.055e-34*J*s}; (* Reduced planck's constant *)
386 PLANCK_C = {2*PI*HBAR}; (* Planck's constant *)
387 LIGHT_C = {2.99793e8 * m/s}; (* Speed of light in vacuum *)
388 MU0 = {4e-7*PI*kg*m/C/C}; (* Permeability of free space *)
389 EPSILON0 = {1/LIGHT_C/LIGHT_C/MU0}; (* Permittivity of free space *)
390 BOLTZMAN_C = {1.3805e-23 * J/K}; (* Boltzman's constant *)
391 SIGMA_C = {5.670e-8 * W/m^2/K^4 }; (* Stefan-Boltzmann constant
392 - blackbody radiation *)
393 AVOGADRO_C = {6.022045e23 *molecule/mol};(* Avogadro's number of molecules *)
394 GRAVITY_C = {6.673e-11 * N*m*m/kg/kg}; (* Newtons gravitational constant *)
395 GAS_C = {BOLTZMAN_C*AVOGADRO_C}; (* Gas constant *)
396 INFINITY= {1.0e38}; (* damn big number *)
397 LIM_EXP= {709.78}; (* ln ( maxdouble ) *)
398 LIM_CUBE= {5.6438030941223618e101}; (* cbrt ( maxdouble ) *)
399 LIM_SQR= {1.0e154}; (* sqrt(maxdouble) *)
400
401 (* The following were swiped from C <math.h> *)
402 M_E= {2.7182818284590452354E0}; (* base e *)
403 M_LOG2E= {1.4426950408889634074E0}; (* log2(e) *)
404 M_LOG10E= {4.3429448190325182765E-1}; (* log10(e) *)
405 M_LN2= {6.9314718055994530942E-1}; (* ln(2) *)
406 M_LN10= {2.3025850929940456840E0}; (* ln(10) *)
407 M_PI= {3.1415926535897932385E0}; (* as PI, but for consistency *)
408 M_PI_2= {1.5707963267948966192E0}; (* PI/2 *)
409 M_PI_4= {7.8539816339744830962E-1}; (* PI/4 *)
410 M_1_PI= {3.1830988618379067154E-1}; (* 1/PI *)
411 M_2_PI= {6.3661977236758134308E-1}; (* 2/PI *)
412 M_2_SQRTPI= {1.1283791670955125739E0}; (* 2/sqrt(PI) *)
413 M_SQRT2= {1.4142135623730950488E0}; (* sqrt(2) *)
414 M_SQRT1_2= {7.0710678118654752440E-1}; (* 1/sqrt(2) *)
415
416 eCHARGE = {1.602e-19*C}; (* Charge of an electron *)
417 EARTH_G = {9.80665 * m/s/s}; (* Earth's gravitational field, somewhere *)
418 eMASS = {9.1095e-31*kg}; (* Electron rest mass, I suppose *)
419 pMASS = {1.67265e-27*kg}; (* Proton mass *)
420
421 (* constant based conversions *)
422
423 eV = {eCHARGE * V};
424 keV = {1000*eV};
425 MeV = {1e6*eV};
426 GeV = {1e9*eV};
427 TeV = {1e12*eV};
428 PeV = {1e15*eV};
429 EeV = {1e18*eV};
430
431 lyr = {LIGHT_C * yr}; (* Light-year *)
432
433 oersted = {gauss/MU0};
434
435 (* subtly dimensionless measures *)
436
437 radian = {rad};
438
439 steradian = {sr};
440 srad = {sr};
441 deg = {rad*1.74532925199433e-2};
442 degrees = {deg};
443 grad = {0.9*deg};
444 arcmin = {deg/60.0};
445 arcsec = {arcmin/60.0};
446
447 (* light quantities *)
448
449 candela = {cd};
450 lm = {cd*sr};
451 lumen = {lm};
452 lx = {lm/m^2};
453 lux= {lx};
454
455 (* misc rates *)
456
457 gpm = {gallon/min};
458
459 (* time variant conversions *)
460
461 MINIMUMWAGE = {5.15*USD/h}; (* Dec 2005, see http://www.dol.gov/ *)
462 (*
463 * conversions we'd like to see , but probably won't
464 * milliHelen = {beauty/ship};
465 * Helen = {documentation/project};
466 * who's helen?
467 * AscendWorldDomination = {big/estimate};
468 *)
469 END UNITS;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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