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1 REQUIRE "system.a4l"; (* => system.a4l, basemodel.a4l *)
2 REQUIRE "measures.a4l"; (* => measures.a4l *)
3 PROVIDE "atoms.a4l";
4
5 (* ASCEND modelling environment
6 * Copyright (C) 1994-2006 Carnegie Mellon University
7 *
8 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
9 * it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
10 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
11 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
12 *
13 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it
14 * will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
15 * warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
16 * See the GNU General Public License for more details.
17 *
18 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
19 * along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
20 * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
21 *)
22
23 (*============================================================================*
24
25 A T O M S . A 4 L
26 -------------------------
27
28 AUTHOR: Joseph J. Zaher
29
30 DATES: 07/91 - Original code.
31 02/92 - Eliminated "display_units" assignments, added
32 commonly used UNIVERSAL constants and transport
33 quantities.
34 04/92 - Added electro-magnetic quantities.
35 06/92 - Converted by Ben Allan to be compatible with ASCEND3C
36 08/92 - Additional monetary atoms added by Bob Huss
37 02/96 - Brought proper constants into the library. Ben Allan.
38 07/96 - Incorporated Ken Tyner's substitution atoms. BAA.
39 07/96 - Switched to REQUIRE syntax.
40 08/96 - Switched to REQUIRE ivpsystem.a4l.
41 08/97 - Switched to REQUIRE/PROVIDE syntax.
42
43 CONTENTS: ASCEND atom definitions for engineering variable types.
44 Many of the anticipated dimensional variables which occur
45 in engineering design calculations are given to provide a
46 means of standardization. Chosen defaults, nominal, and
47 lower and upper bound values should be re-specified if
48 necessary to enhance the convergence properties of
49 specific models. Units to be displayed are to be controlled
50 using the UNITS tool kit of the environment.
51
52 REQUIRES: see top of file.
53
54 This file by Joseph J. Zaher, Benjamin A. Allan, Robert S. Huss, John Pye
55 Last in CVS: $Date: 1998/08/17 13:07:11 $ $Revision: 1.11 $
56
57 *===========================================================================*)
58
59 (* G E N E R I C C O N S T A N T S ( C H E M . E . B I A S )
60 -------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
61
62 CONSTANT constant
63 (* any sloppiness about what is a constant will yield a wild real *)
64 REFINES real_constant;
65
66 (* dimensionless *)
67
68 CONSTANT critical_compressibility REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
69
70 CONSTANT acentric_factor REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
71
72 CONSTANT UNIFAC_size REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
73
74 CONSTANT Wilson_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
75
76 CONSTANT vapor_pressure_constant REFINES real_constant;
77
78 CONSTANT factor_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
79
80 (* molecular weight *)
81 CONSTANT molar_weight_constant
82 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/Q;
83
84 (* atomic mass *)
85 CONSTANT atomic_mass_constant
86 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M;
87
88 (* temperatures *)
89 CONSTANT temperature_constant
90 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION TMP;
91
92 CONSTANT boiling_temperature
93 REFINES temperature_constant;
94
95 CONSTANT critical_temperature
96 REFINES temperature_constant;
97
98 CONSTANT reference_temperature
99 REFINES temperature_constant;
100
101 CONSTANT UNIFAC_a
102 REFINES temperature_constant;
103
104 (* pressures *)
105 CONSTANT pressure_constant
106 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L/T^2;
107
108 CONSTANT critical_pressure
109 REFINES pressure_constant;
110
111 CONSTANT reference_pressure
112 REFINES pressure_constant;
113
114 (* molar volumes *)
115 CONSTANT molar_volume_constant
116 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L^3/Q;
117
118 CONSTANT critical_volume
119 REFINES molar_volume_constant;
120
121 CONSTANT reference_molar_volume
122 REFINES molar_volume_constant;
123
124 (* mass densities *)
125 CONSTANT reference_mass_density
126 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L^3;
127
128 (* molar energies *)
129 CONSTANT molar_energy_constant
130 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q;
131
132 CONSTANT reference_molar_energy
133 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
134
135 CONSTANT enthalpy_of_formation_constant
136 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
137
138 CONSTANT free_energy_of_formation_constant
139 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
140
141 CONSTANT heat_of_vaporization_constant
142 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
143
144 CONSTANT Wilson_energy_constant
145 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
146
147 (* molar entropies *)
148 CONSTANT molar_entropy_constant
149 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
150
151 CONSTANT reference_molar_entropy
152 REFINES molar_entropy_constant;
153
154 (* other strange correlation coefficients *)
155 CONSTANT heat_capacity_constant
156 REFINES real_constant;
157
158 CONSTANT heat_capacity_a_constant
159 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
160
161 CONSTANT heat_capacity_b_constant
162 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^2;
163
164 CONSTANT heat_capacity_c_constant
165 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^3;
166
167 CONSTANT heat_capacity_d_constant
168 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^4;
169
170 (*
171 CONSTANT
172 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION;
173 *)
174
175 (* U N I V E R S A L C O N S T A N T S
176 -------------------------------------- *)
177
178 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT gas_constant
179 (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP *)
180 REFINES real_constant :== 1{GAS_C};
181
182 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT gravity_constant
183 (* DIMENSION L/T^2 *)
184 REFINES real_constant :== 1{EARTH_G};
185
186 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT circle_constant
187 REFINES real_constant :== 1{PI};
188
189 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT speed_of_light
190 REFINES real_constant :== 1{LIGHT_C};
191
192 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT planck_constant
193 (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T *)
194 REFINES real_constant :== 1{PLANCK_C};
195
196 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT avogadro_constant
197 REFINES real_constant :== 1{AVOGADRO_C};
198
199 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permittivity_constant
200 (* DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^3 *)
201 REFINES real_constant :== 1{EPSILON0};
202
203 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permeability_constant
204 REFINES real_constant :== 1{MU0};
205
206 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_charge
207 REFINES real_constant :== 1{eCHARGE};
208
209 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_mass
210 REFINES real_constant :== 1{eMASS};
211
212 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT proton_mass
213 REFINES real_constant :== 1{pMASS};
214
215 (* B O O L E A N S *)
216
217 (* use these booleans *)
218 ATOM boolean_start_true REFINES boolean
219 DEFAULT TRUE;
220 END boolean_start_true;
221
222 ATOM boolean_start_false REFINES boolean
223 DEFAULT FALSE;
224 END boolean_start_false;
225
226 (* for backward compatibility *)
227 ATOM start_true REFINES boolean
228 DEFAULT TRUE;
229 END start_true;
230
231 ATOM start_false REFINES boolean
232 DEFAULT FALSE;
233 END start_false;
234
235
236 (* P A R A M E T E R S *)
237
238 UNIVERSAL ATOM bound_width REFINES real
239 (* not really a constant but a parameter to tell us how wide to
240 * put bounds from the current point, in relative terms.
241 * e.g. a.upper_bound := a + a.nominal * bound_width_instance;
242 *)
243 DIMENSIONLESS
244 DEFAULT 1.0e8;
245 END bound_width;
246
247 UNIVERSAL ATOM scaling_constant REFINES real
248 (* not really a constant but a parameter. which
249 * needs problem dependent information to be useful.
250 *)
251 DIMENSIONLESS
252 DEFAULT 1.0;
253 END scaling_constant;
254
255 UNIVERSAL ATOM ode_counter REFINES integer
256 DIMENSIONLESS
257 DEFAULT 1;
258 END ode_counter;
259
260 UNIVERSAL ATOM obs_counter REFINES integer
261 DIMENSIONLESS
262 DEFAULT 1;
263 END obs_counter;
264
265 ATOM real_parameter REFINES real;
266 END real_parameter;
267
268 ATOM length_parameter REFINES real_parameter
269 DIMENSION L
270 DEFAULT 1.0 {m};
271 END length_parameter;
272
273
274 (* D I M E N S I O N L E S S Q U A N T I T I E S
275 ---------------------------------------------- *)
276
277 ATOM positive_variable REFINES solver_var
278 (* one for the gams folks *)
279 DIMENSIONLESS
280 DEFAULT 1.0;
281 lower_bound := 0.0;
282 upper_bound := 1e20;
283 nominal := 1.0;
284 END positive_variable;
285
286 ATOM factor REFINES solver_var
287 DIMENSIONLESS
288 DEFAULT 1.0;
289 lower_bound := -1e50;
290 upper_bound := 1e50;
291 nominal := 1.0;
292 END factor;
293
294 ATOM variable REFINES solver_var
295 DIMENSIONLESS;
296 END variable;
297
298
299 ATOM fraction REFINES solver_var
300 DIMENSIONLESS
301 DEFAULT 0.5;
302 nominal := 1.0;
303 lower_bound := 0.0;
304 upper_bound := 1.0;
305 END fraction;
306
307 ATOM positive_factor REFINES factor;
308 lower_bound := 0.0;
309 END positive_factor;
310
311 ATOM small_factor REFINES factor;
312 lower_bound := -10.0;
313 upper_bound := 10.0;
314 END small_factor;
315
316 ATOM small_positive_factor REFINES factor;
317 lower_bound := 0.0;
318 upper_bound := 10.0;
319 END small_positive_factor;
320
321 ATOM reduced_pressure REFINES factor;
322 END reduced_pressure;
323
324 (* S U B S T I T U T I O N V A R I A B L E S
325 ------------------------------------------ *)
326 ATOM exp_sub REFINES factor ;
327 lower_bound := -1e50;
328 upper_bound := 100;
329 nominal := 1.0;
330 END exp_sub;
331
332 ATOM power_sub REFINES factor;
333 lower_bound := -25;
334 upper_bound := 25;
335 nominal := 1.0;
336 END power_sub;
337
338 (* T E M P E R A T U R E
339 --------------------- *)
340
341 ATOM temperature REFINES solver_var
342 DIMENSION TMP
343 DEFAULT 298.0{K};
344 lower_bound := 1.0e-6{K};
345 upper_bound := 10000{K};
346 nominal := 298.0{K};
347 END temperature;
348
349 ATOM inverse_temperature REFINES solver_var
350 DIMENSION 1/TMP
351 DEFAULT 0.00366099{1/K};
352 lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
353 upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
354 nominal := 0.00366099{1/K};
355 END inverse_temperature;
356
357 ATOM delta_temperature REFINES solver_var
358 DIMENSION TMP
359 DEFAULT 0.1{K};
360 lower_bound := -1000{K};
361 upper_bound := +1000{K};
362 nominal := 5{K};
363 END delta_temperature;
364
365 (* forces *)
366 ATOM force REFINES solver_var
367 DIMENSION M*L/T^2
368 DEFAULT 1.0{N};
369 lower_bound := -1e20{N};
370 upper_bound := 1e20{N};
371 nominal := 1.0{kN};
372 END force;
373
374 ATOM force_per_length REFINES solver_var
375 DIMENSION M/T^2
376 DEFAULT 1.0{N/m};
377 lower_bound := -1e20{N/m};
378 upper_bound := 1e20{N/m};
379 nominal := 1.0{N/m};
380 END force_per_length;
381
382 ATOM surface_tension REFINES solver_var
383 DIMENSION M/T^2
384 DEFAULT 1.0{N/m};
385 lower_bound := 0{N/m};
386 upper_bound := 1e20{N/m};
387 nominal := 1.0{N/m};
388 END surface_tension;
389
390 (* P R E S S U R E
391 --------------- *)
392
393 ATOM pressure REFINES solver_var
394 DIMENSION M/L/T^2
395 DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
396 lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
397 upper_bound := 5000{atm};
398 nominal := 1.0{atm};
399 END pressure;
400
401 ATOM delta_pressure REFINES solver_var
402 DIMENSION M/L/T^2
403 DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
404 lower_bound := -1000{atm};
405 upper_bound := 1000{atm};
406 nominal := 1.0{atm};
407 END delta_pressure;
408
409 ATOM vapor_pressure REFINES pressure
410 DIMENSION M/L/T^2
411 DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
412 lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
413 upper_bound := 5000{atm};
414 nominal := 0.5{atm};
415 END vapor_pressure;
416
417 ATOM k_constant REFINES solver_var
418 (* what IS this ? ? ? (it rings a bell...) *)
419 DIMENSION T^2/L^5
420 DEFAULT 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
421 lower_bound := 0.001 {s^2/ft^5};
422 upper_bound := 5000 {s^2/ft^5};
423 nominal := 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
424 END k_constant;
425
426 ATOM pressure_per_length REFINES solver_var
427 DIMENSION M/L^2/T^2
428 DEFAULT 50 {Pa/m};
429 lower_bound := -10{bar/m};
430 upper_bound := +10{bar/m};
431 nominal := 50 {Pa/m};
432 END pressure_per_length;
433
434 (* M A S S / M O L E Q U A N T I T I E S
435 -------------------------------------- *)
436
437 ATOM molar_mass REFINES solver_var
438 DIMENSION M/Q
439 DEFAULT 100.0{g/g_mole};
440 lower_bound := 0.0{g/g_mole};
441 upper_bound := 1e9{g/g_mole};
442 nominal := 100.0{g/g_mole};
443 END molar_mass;
444
445 ATOM mass REFINES solver_var
446 DIMENSION M
447 DEFAULT 10.0{kg};
448 lower_bound := 0.0{kg};
449 upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
450 nominal := 10.0{kg};
451 END mass;
452
453 ATOM mole_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q DEFAULT 1 {mole};
454 END mole_scale;
455
456 ATOM mole REFINES solver_var
457 DIMENSION Q
458 DEFAULT 10.0{lb_mole};
459 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole};
460 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
461 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
462 END mole;
463
464 ATOM mass_rate REFINES solver_var
465 DIMENSION M/T
466 DEFAULT 50{g/s};
467 lower_bound := 0.0{g/s};
468 upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
469 nominal := 100.0{g/s};
470 END mass_rate;
471
472 ATOM mass_flux REFINES solver_var
473 DIMENSION M/T/L^2
474 DEFAULT 10{kg/s/m^2};
475 lower_bound := -1e12{kg/s/m^2};
476 upper_bound := 1e12{kg/s/m^2};
477 nominal := 10.0{kg/s/m^2};
478 END mass_flux;
479
480
481 ATOM mass_rate_rate REFINES solver_var
482 DIMENSION M/T^2
483 DEFAULT 10{g/s/s};
484 lower_bound := -1e50{g/s/s};
485 upper_bound := 1e50{g/s/s};
486 nominal := 10.0{g/s/s};
487 END mass_rate_rate;
488
489 ATOM mass_rate_per_length REFINES solver_var
490 DIMENSION M/T/L
491 DEFAULT 0.1 {kg/s/m};
492 lower_bound := -1e50 {kg/s/m};
493 upper_bound := 1e50 {kg/s/m};
494 nominal := 1.0 {kg/s/m};
495 END mass_rate_per_length;
496
497
498 ATOM molar_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q/T DEFAULT 1 {mole/second};
499 END molar_rate_scale;
500
501 ATOM molar_rate REFINES solver_var
502 DIMENSION Q/T
503 DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
504 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
505 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
506 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
507 END molar_rate;
508
509 ATOM conc_rate REFINES solver_var
510 DIMENSION Q/L^3/T
511 DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
512 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
513 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
514 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
515 END conc_rate;
516
517
518 ATOM mole_fraction REFINES fraction
519 DIMENSIONLESS
520 DEFAULT 0.5;
521 lower_bound := 0.0;
522 nominal := 0.3;
523 upper_bound := 1.0;
524 END mole_fraction;
525
526 ATOM mass_fraction REFINES fraction
527 DIMENSIONLESS
528 DEFAULT 0.5;
529 lower_bound := 0.0;
530 nominal := 0.3;
531 upper_bound := 1.0;
532 END mass_fraction;
533
534
535 (* V O L U M E Q U A N T I T I E S
536 -------------------------------- *)
537
538 ATOM molar_volume REFINES solver_var
539 DIMENSION L^3/Q
540 DEFAULT 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
541 lower_bound := 0.0{cm^3/g_mole};
542 upper_bound := 1e50{cm^3/g_mole};
543 nominal := 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
544 END molar_volume;
545
546 ATOM volume_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3 DEFAULT 1.0 {m^3};
547 END volume_scale;
548
549 ATOM volume REFINES solver_var
550 DIMENSION L^3
551 DEFAULT 100.0{ft^3};
552 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^3};
553 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^3};
554 nominal := 100.0{ft^3};
555 END volume;
556
557 ATOM volume_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3/T DEFAULT 1{m^3/s};
558 END volume_rate_scale;
559
560 ATOM volume_rate REFINES solver_var
561 DIMENSION L^3/T
562 DEFAULT 100.0{gpm};
563 lower_bound := 0.0{gpm};
564 upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
565 nominal := 100.0{gpm};
566 END volume_rate;
567
568 ATOM volume_rate_square REFINES solver_var
569 DIMENSION L^6/T^2
570 DEFAULT 100.0{ft^6/s^2};
571 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^6/s^2};
572 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^6/s^2};
573 nominal := 100 {ft^6/s^2};
574 END volume_rate_square;
575
576 ATOM volume_expansivity REFINES solver_var
577 DIMENSION 1/TMP
578 DEFAULT 0.001{1/K};
579 lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
580 upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
581 nominal := 0.001{1/K};
582 END volume_expansivity;
583
584
585 (* D E N S I T Y Q U A N T I T I E S
586 ---------------------------------- *)
587
588 ATOM molar_density REFINES solver_var
589 DIMENSION Q/L^3
590 DEFAULT 0.1{mole/m^3};
591 lower_bound := 0.0{mole/m^3};
592 upper_bound := 1e50{mole/m^3};
593 nominal := 0.1{mole/m^3};
594 END molar_density;
595
596 ATOM mass_density REFINES solver_var
597 DIMENSION M/L^3
598 DEFAULT 1.0{g/cm^3};
599 lower_bound := 0.0{g/cm^3};
600 upper_bound := 1e50{g/cm^3};
601 nominal := 1.0{g/cm^3};
602 END mass_density;
603
604
605 (* E N E R G Y Q U A N T I T I E S
606 ------------------------------------ *)
607
608 ATOM molar_energy REFINES solver_var
609 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q
610 DEFAULT 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
611 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
612 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
613 nominal := 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
614 END molar_energy;
615
616 ATOM energy_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2 DEFAULT 1{joule};
617 END energy_scale;
618
619 ATOM energy REFINES solver_var
620 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2
621 DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU};
622 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU};
623 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU};
624 nominal := 100000.0{BTU};
625 END energy;
626
627 ATOM energy_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3 DEFAULT 1{watt};
628 END energy_rate_scale;
629
630 ATOM energy_rate REFINES solver_var
631 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
632 DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU/hour};
633 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
634 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
635 nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
636 END energy_rate;
637
638 ATOM power_per_length REFINES solver_var
639 DIMENSION M*L/T^3
640 DEFAULT 1.0{kW/m};
641 lower_bound := -1e50{kW/m};
642 upper_bound := 1e50{kW/m};
643 nominal := 1.0{kW/m};
644 END power_per_length;
645
646 ATOM irradiance REFINES solver_var
647 DIMENSION M/T^3
648 DEFAULT 1000{W/m^2};
649 lower_bound := 0{W/m^2};
650 upper_bound := 1.5{MW/m^3}; (* a bit more that the max possible from sunlight *)
651 nominal := 300{W/m^2};
652 END irradiance;
653
654 ATOM molar_heat_capacity REFINES solver_var
655 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
656 DEFAULT 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
657 lower_bound := 0.0{J/mole/K};
658 upper_bound := 1e60{J/mole/K};
659 nominal := 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
660 END molar_heat_capacity;
661
662 ATOM molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
663 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
664 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
665 lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
666 upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
667 nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
668 END molar_energy_rate;
669
670 (* E N T R O P Y Q U A N T I T I E S
671 ---------------------------------- *)
672
673 ATOM molar_entropy REFINES solver_var
674 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
675 DEFAULT 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
676 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
677 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
678 nominal := 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
679 END molar_entropy;
680
681 ATOM entropy REFINES solver_var
682 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/TMP
683 DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/R};
684 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/R};
685 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/R};
686 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/R};
687 END entropy;
688
689 ATOM entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
690 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
691 DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
692 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
693 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
694 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
695 END entropy_rate;
696
697
698
699 (* E Q U I L I B R I U M Q U A N T I T I E S
700 ------------------------------------------ *)
701
702 ATOM partition_coefficient REFINES factor (* new *)
703 DEFAULT 1.0;
704 lower_bound := 1.0e-10;
705 upper_bound := 30.0;
706 nominal := 1.0;
707 END partition_coefficient;
708
709 ATOM relative_volatility REFINES partition_coefficient; (* new *)
710 END relative_volatility;
711
712
713 (* M O N E T A R Y Q U A N T I T I E S
714 ------------------------------------ *)
715
716 ATOM monetary_unit REFINES solver_var
717 DIMENSION C
718 DEFAULT 100.0{USD};
719 lower_bound := -1e50{USD};
720 upper_bound := 1e50{USD};
721 nominal := 100.0{USD};
722 END monetary_unit;
723
724 ATOM cost_per_volume REFINES solver_var
725 DIMENSION C/L^3
726 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/gallon};
727 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/gallon};
728 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/gallon};
729 nominal := 1.0{USD/gallon};
730 END cost_per_volume;
731
732 ATOM cost_per_mass REFINES solver_var
733 DIMENSION C/M
734 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lbm};
735 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lbm};
736 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lbm};
737 nominal := 1.0{USD/lbm};
738 END cost_per_mass;
739
740 ATOM cost_per_mole REFINES solver_var
741 DIMENSION C/Q
742 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
743 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lb_mole};
744 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lb_mole};
745 nominal := 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
746 END cost_per_mole;
747
748 ATOM cost_per_time REFINES solver_var
749 DIMENSION C/T
750 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/min};
751 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/min};
752 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/min};
753 nominal := 1.0{USD/min};
754 END cost_per_time;
755
756 ATOM cost_per_energy REFINES solver_var
757 DIMENSION C*T^2/M/L^2
758 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/BTU};
759 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/BTU};
760 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/BTU};
761 nominal := 1.0{USD/BTU};
762 END cost_per_energy;
763
764
765 (* S U R V E Y I N G Q U A N T I T I E S
766 --------------------------------------- *)
767
768 ATOM distance REFINES solver_var
769 DIMENSION L
770 DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
771 lower_bound := 0.0{ft};
772 upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
773 nominal := 10.0{ft};
774 END distance;
775
776 ATOM area REFINES solver_var
777 DIMENSION L^2
778 DEFAULT 10.0{ft^2};
779 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^2};
780 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^2};
781 nominal := 10.0{ft^2};
782 END area;
783
784 ATOM inverse_area REFINES solver_var
785 DIMENSION L^-2
786 DEFAULT 1{1/ft^2};
787 lower_bound := 0.0{1/ft^2};
788 upper_bound := 1e50{1/ft^2};
789 nominal := 1.0{1/ft^2};
790 END inverse_area;
791
792 ATOM angle REFINES solver_var
793 DIMENSION P
794 DEFAULT 1 {rad};
795 lower_bound := -1e50 {rad};
796 upper_bound := 1e50 {rad};
797 nominal := 1 {rad};
798 END angle;
799
800 ATOM solid_angle REFINES solver_var
801 DIMENSION S
802 DEFAULT 1 {srad};
803 lower_bound := -1e50 {srad};
804 upper_bound := 1e50 {srad};
805 nominal := 1 {srad};
806 END solid_angle;
807
808 (* M O T I O N Q U A N T I T I E S
809 --------------------------------- *)
810
811 ATOM time REFINES solver_var
812 DIMENSION T
813 DEFAULT 60.0{s};
814 lower_bound := -1e50{s};
815 upper_bound := 1e50{s};
816 nominal := 60.0{s};
817 END time;
818
819 ATOM speed REFINES solver_var
820 DIMENSION L/T
821 DEFAULT 3.0{ft/s};
822 lower_bound := -1e50{m/s};
823 upper_bound := 1e50{m/s};
824 nominal := 1.0{m/s};
825 END speed;
826
827 ATOM acceleration REFINES solver_var
828 DIMENSION L/T^2
829 DEFAULT 9.8{m/s^2};
830 lower_bound := -1e50{m/s^2};
831 upper_bound := 1e50{m/s^2};
832 nominal := 9.8{m/s^2};
833 END acceleration;
834
835 ATOM frequency REFINES solver_var
836 DIMENSION 1/T
837 DEFAULT 60.0{1/s};
838 lower_bound := 0.0{1/s};
839 upper_bound := 1e50{1/s};
840 nominal := 60.0{1/s};
841 END frequency;
842
843 ATOM stiffness REFINES solver_var
844 DIMENSION M/T^2
845 DEFAULT 1 {N/m};
846 lower_bound := 0 {N/m};
847 upper_bound := 1e12 {N/m};
848 nominal := 1 {N/m};
849 END stiffness;
850
851
852
853 (* T R A N S P O R T Q U A N T I T I E S
854 --------------------------------------- *)
855
856 ATOM viscosity REFINES solver_var
857 DIMENSION M/L/T
858 DEFAULT 1.0{cP};
859 lower_bound := 0.0{cP};
860 upper_bound := 1e50{cP};
861 nominal := 1.0{cP};
862 END viscosity;
863
864 ATOM thermal_conductivity REFINES solver_var
865 DIMENSION M*L/T^3/TMP
866 DEFAULT 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
867 lower_bound := 0.0{BTU/hour/ft/R};
868 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/ft/R};
869 nominal := 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
870 END thermal_conductivity;
871
872 ATOM diffusivity REFINES solver_var
873 DIMENSION L^2/T
874 DEFAULT 1.0{cm^2/s};
875 lower_bound := 0.0{cm^2/s};
876 upper_bound := 1e50{cm^2/s};
877 nominal := 1.0{cm^2/s};
878 END diffusivity;
879
880
881 (* E L E C T R O - M A G N E T I C Q U A N T I T I E S
882 ---------------------------------------------------- *)
883
884 ATOM voltage REFINES solver_var
885 DIMENSION M*L^2/(T^3*E)
886 DEFAULT 10.0{volt};
887 lower_bound := -1e50{volt};
888 upper_bound := 1e50{volt};
889 nominal := 10.0{volt};
890 END voltage;
891
892 ATOM resistance REFINES solver_var
893 DIMENSION M*L^2/(E^2*T^3)
894 DEFAULT 10.0{ohm};
895 lower_bound := -1e50{ohm};
896 upper_bound := 1e50{ohm};
897 nominal := 10.0{ohm};
898 END resistance;
899
900 ATOM current REFINES solver_var
901 DIMENSION E
902 DEFAULT 1.0{amp};
903 lower_bound := -1e50{amp};
904 upper_bound := 1e50{amp};
905 nominal := 1.0{amp};
906 END current;
907
908 ATOM capacitance REFINES solver_var
909 DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^2
910 DEFAULT 1.0{coulomb/volt};
911 lower_bound := -1e50{coulomb/volt};
912 upper_bound := 1e50{coulomb/volt};
913 nominal := 1.0{coulomb/volt};
914 END capacitance;
915
916 ATOM inductance REFINES solver_var
917 DIMENSION M*L^2/E^2/T^2
918 DEFAULT 1.0{volt*s/amp};
919 lower_bound := -1e50{volt*s/amp};
920 upper_bound := 1e50{volt*s/amp};
921 nominal := 1.0{volt*s/amp};
922 END inductance;
923
924 ATOM magnetic_field REFINES solver_var
925 DIMENSION E/L
926 DEFAULT 1.0{amp/m};
927 lower_bound := -1e50{amp/m};
928 upper_bound := 1e50{amp/m};
929 nominal := 1.0{amp/m};
930 END magnetic_field;
931
932 ATOM electric_field REFINES solver_var
933 DIMENSION M*L/E/T^3
934 DEFAULT 1.0{volt/m};
935 lower_bound := -1e50{volt/m};
936 upper_bound := 1e50{volt/m};
937 nominal := 1.0{volt/m};
938 END electric_field;
939
940 (* D I F F E R E N T I A L Q U A N T I T I E S
941 ------------------------------------------- *)
942
943 ATOM delta_distance REFINES solver_var
944 DIMENSION L
945 DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
946 lower_bound := -1e50{ft};
947 upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
948 nominal := 10.0{ft};
949 END delta_distance;
950
951 ATOM temperature_rate REFINES solver_var
952 DIMENSION TMP/T
953 DEFAULT 0{K/s};
954 lower_bound := -100{K/s};
955 upper_bound := 100{K/s};
956 nominal := 298.0{K/s};
957 END temperature_rate;
958
959 ATOM delta_mass REFINES solver_var
960 DIMENSION M
961 DEFAULT 0.0{kg};
962 lower_bound := -1e50{kg};
963 upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
964 nominal := 10.0{kg};
965 END delta_mass;
966
967 ATOM delta_mole REFINES solver_var
968 DIMENSION Q
969 DEFAULT 0{lb_mole};
970 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole};
971 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
972 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
973 END delta_mole;
974
975 ATOM delta_mass_rate REFINES solver_var
976 DIMENSION M/T
977 DEFAULT 0{g/s};
978 lower_bound := -1e50{g/s};
979 upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
980 nominal := 100.0{g/s};
981 END delta_mass_rate;
982
983 ATOM delta_molar_rate REFINES solver_var
984 DIMENSION Q/T
985 DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
986 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole/hour};
987 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
988 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
989 END delta_molar_rate;
990
991 ATOM delta_volume_rate REFINES solver_var
992 DIMENSION L^3/T
993 DEFAULT 0.0{gpm};
994 lower_bound := -1e50{gpm};
995 upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
996 nominal := 100.0{gpm};
997 END delta_volume_rate;
998
999 ATOM density_rate REFINES solver_var
1000 DIMENSION M/L^3/T
1001 DEFAULT 0.0 {kg/m^3/s};
1002 lower_bound := -1e50 {kg/m^3/s};
1003 upper_bound := 1e50 {kg/m^3/s};
1004 nominal := 0.1 {kg/m^3/s};
1005 END density_rate;
1006
1007 ATOM delta_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
1008 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
1009 DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour};
1010 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
1011 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
1012 nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
1013 END delta_energy_rate;
1014
1015 ATOM delta_molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
1016 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
1017 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1018 lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1019 upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1020 nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1021 END delta_molar_energy_rate;
1022
1023 ATOM delta_entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
1024 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
1025 DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour/R};
1026 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
1027 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
1028 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
1029 END delta_entropy_rate;
1030
1031
1032 (* C O N T R O L L E R Q U A N T I T I E S
1033 ---------------------------------------- *)
1034
1035 ATOM mass_sec REFINES solver_var
1036 DIMENSION M*T
1037 DEFAULT 0.0{kg*s};
1038 lower_bound := -1e50{kg*s};
1039 upper_bound := 1e50{kg*s};
1040 nominal := 10.0{kg*s};
1041 END mass_sec;
1042
1043 ATOM mole_sec REFINES solver_var
1044 DIMENSION Q*T
1045 DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole*s};
1046 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole*s};
1047 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole*s};
1048 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole*s};
1049 END mole_sec;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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