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Fixing GPL header, removing postal address (rpmlint incorrect-fsf-address)
1 johnpye 753 (* ASCEND modelling environment
2 jpye 1351 * Copyright (C) 1994-2007 Carnegie Mellon University
3 aw0a 1 *
4     * The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
5     * it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
6     * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
7     * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
8     *
9     * The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it
10     * will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
11     * warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
12     * See the GNU General Public License for more details.
13     *
14     * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
15 jpye 2651 * along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
16 aw0a 1 *)
17 jpye 1351 REQUIRE "system.a4l"; (* => system.a4l, basemodel.a4l *)
18     REQUIRE "measures.a4l"; (* => measures.a4l *)
19     PROVIDE "atoms.a4l";
20     (*
21     Original Author: Joseph J. Zaher
22     Contributors: Ben Allan, Bob Huss, John Pye.
23 aw0a 1
24 jpye 1351 ASCEND atom definitions for engineering variable types.
25     Many of the anticipated dimensional variables which occur
26     in engineering design calculations are given to provide a
27     means of standardization. Chosen defaults, nominal, and
28     lower and upper bound values should be re-specified if
29     necessary to enhance the convergence properties of
30     specific models. Units to be displayed are to be controlled
31     using the UNITS tool kit of the environment.
32 aw0a 1
33 jpye 1351 If you add a new type here, you are encouraged to also make corresponding
34     changes to the syntax definition files pygtk/gnome/ascend.lang (for gedit
35     on GNOME) and ascend.syn (for TextPad on Windows).
36     *)
37 aw0a 1
38     (* G E N E R I C C O N S T A N T S ( C H E M . E . B I A S )
39     -------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
40    
41     CONSTANT constant
42     (* any sloppiness about what is a constant will yield a wild real *)
43     REFINES real_constant;
44    
45     (* dimensionless *)
46    
47     CONSTANT critical_compressibility REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
48    
49     CONSTANT acentric_factor REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
50    
51     CONSTANT UNIFAC_size REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
52    
53     CONSTANT Wilson_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
54    
55     CONSTANT vapor_pressure_constant REFINES real_constant;
56    
57     CONSTANT factor_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
58    
59 jpye 2471 (* angles *)
60     CONSTANT angle_constant
61     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION P;
62    
63     CONSTANT solid_angle_constant
64     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION S;
65    
66 jpye 2472 (* time *)
67     CONSTANT time_constant
68     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION T;
69    
70 aw0a 1 (* molecular weight *)
71     CONSTANT molar_weight_constant
72     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/Q;
73    
74     (* atomic mass *)
75     CONSTANT atomic_mass_constant
76     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M;
77    
78     (* temperatures *)
79     CONSTANT temperature_constant
80     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION TMP;
81    
82     CONSTANT boiling_temperature
83     REFINES temperature_constant;
84    
85     CONSTANT critical_temperature
86     REFINES temperature_constant;
87    
88     CONSTANT reference_temperature
89     REFINES temperature_constant;
90    
91     CONSTANT UNIFAC_a
92     REFINES temperature_constant;
93    
94     (* pressures *)
95     CONSTANT pressure_constant
96     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L/T^2;
97    
98     CONSTANT critical_pressure
99     REFINES pressure_constant;
100    
101     CONSTANT reference_pressure
102     REFINES pressure_constant;
103    
104     (* molar volumes *)
105     CONSTANT molar_volume_constant
106     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L^3/Q;
107    
108     CONSTANT critical_volume
109     REFINES molar_volume_constant;
110    
111     CONSTANT reference_molar_volume
112     REFINES molar_volume_constant;
113    
114     (* mass densities *)
115     CONSTANT reference_mass_density
116     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L^3;
117    
118     (* molar energies *)
119     CONSTANT molar_energy_constant
120     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q;
121    
122     CONSTANT reference_molar_energy
123     REFINES molar_energy_constant;
124    
125     CONSTANT enthalpy_of_formation_constant
126     REFINES molar_energy_constant;
127    
128     CONSTANT free_energy_of_formation_constant
129     REFINES molar_energy_constant;
130    
131     CONSTANT heat_of_vaporization_constant
132     REFINES molar_energy_constant;
133    
134     CONSTANT Wilson_energy_constant
135     REFINES molar_energy_constant;
136    
137     (* molar entropies *)
138     CONSTANT molar_entropy_constant
139     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
140    
141     CONSTANT reference_molar_entropy
142     REFINES molar_entropy_constant;
143    
144     (* other strange correlation coefficients *)
145     CONSTANT heat_capacity_constant
146     REFINES real_constant;
147    
148     CONSTANT heat_capacity_a_constant
149     REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
150    
151     CONSTANT heat_capacity_b_constant
152     REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^2;
153    
154     CONSTANT heat_capacity_c_constant
155     REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^3;
156    
157     CONSTANT heat_capacity_d_constant
158     REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^4;
159    
160     (*
161     CONSTANT
162     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION;
163     *)
164    
165     (* U N I V E R S A L C O N S T A N T S
166     -------------------------------------- *)
167    
168 jpye 2005 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT molar_gas_constant
169 aw0a 1 (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP *)
170     REFINES real_constant :== 1{GAS_C};
171    
172     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT gravity_constant
173     (* DIMENSION L/T^2 *)
174     REFINES real_constant :== 1{EARTH_G};
175    
176     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT circle_constant
177     REFINES real_constant :== 1{PI};
178    
179     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT speed_of_light
180     REFINES real_constant :== 1{LIGHT_C};
181    
182     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT planck_constant
183     (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T *)
184     REFINES real_constant :== 1{PLANCK_C};
185    
186     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT avogadro_constant
187     REFINES real_constant :== 1{AVOGADRO_C};
188    
189     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permittivity_constant
190     (* DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^3 *)
191     REFINES real_constant :== 1{EPSILON0};
192    
193     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permeability_constant
194     REFINES real_constant :== 1{MU0};
195    
196     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_charge
197     REFINES real_constant :== 1{eCHARGE};
198    
199     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_mass
200     REFINES real_constant :== 1{eMASS};
201    
202     UNIVERSAL CONSTANT proton_mass
203     REFINES real_constant :== 1{pMASS};
204    
205     (* B O O L E A N S *)
206    
207     (* use these booleans *)
208     ATOM boolean_start_true REFINES boolean
209     DEFAULT TRUE;
210     END boolean_start_true;
211    
212     ATOM boolean_start_false REFINES boolean
213     DEFAULT FALSE;
214     END boolean_start_false;
215    
216     (* for backward compatibility *)
217     ATOM start_true REFINES boolean
218     DEFAULT TRUE;
219     END start_true;
220    
221     ATOM start_false REFINES boolean
222     DEFAULT FALSE;
223     END start_false;
224    
225    
226     (* P A R A M E T E R S *)
227    
228     UNIVERSAL ATOM bound_width REFINES real
229     (* not really a constant but a parameter to tell us how wide to
230     * put bounds from the current point, in relative terms.
231     * e.g. a.upper_bound := a + a.nominal * bound_width_instance;
232     *)
233     DIMENSIONLESS
234     DEFAULT 1.0e8;
235     END bound_width;
236    
237     UNIVERSAL ATOM scaling_constant REFINES real
238     (* not really a constant but a parameter. which
239     * needs problem dependent information to be useful.
240     *)
241     DIMENSIONLESS
242     DEFAULT 1.0;
243     END scaling_constant;
244    
245     UNIVERSAL ATOM ode_counter REFINES integer
246     DIMENSIONLESS
247     DEFAULT 1;
248     END ode_counter;
249    
250     UNIVERSAL ATOM obs_counter REFINES integer
251     DIMENSIONLESS
252     DEFAULT 1;
253     END obs_counter;
254    
255     ATOM real_parameter REFINES real;
256     END real_parameter;
257    
258     ATOM length_parameter REFINES real_parameter
259     DIMENSION L
260     DEFAULT 1.0 {m};
261     END length_parameter;
262    
263    
264     (* D I M E N S I O N L E S S Q U A N T I T I E S
265     ---------------------------------------------- *)
266    
267     ATOM positive_variable REFINES solver_var
268     (* one for the gams folks *)
269     DIMENSIONLESS
270     DEFAULT 1.0;
271     lower_bound := 0.0;
272     upper_bound := 1e20;
273     nominal := 1.0;
274     END positive_variable;
275    
276     ATOM factor REFINES solver_var
277     DIMENSIONLESS
278     DEFAULT 1.0;
279     lower_bound := -1e50;
280     upper_bound := 1e50;
281     nominal := 1.0;
282     END factor;
283    
284     ATOM variable REFINES solver_var
285     DIMENSIONLESS;
286     END variable;
287    
288    
289     ATOM fraction REFINES solver_var
290     DIMENSIONLESS
291     DEFAULT 0.5;
292     nominal := 1.0;
293     lower_bound := 0.0;
294     upper_bound := 1.0;
295     END fraction;
296    
297     ATOM positive_factor REFINES factor;
298     lower_bound := 0.0;
299     END positive_factor;
300    
301     ATOM small_factor REFINES factor;
302     lower_bound := -10.0;
303     upper_bound := 10.0;
304     END small_factor;
305    
306     ATOM small_positive_factor REFINES factor;
307     lower_bound := 0.0;
308     upper_bound := 10.0;
309     END small_positive_factor;
310    
311     ATOM reduced_pressure REFINES factor;
312     END reduced_pressure;
313    
314     (* S U B S T I T U T I O N V A R I A B L E S
315     ------------------------------------------ *)
316     ATOM exp_sub REFINES factor ;
317     lower_bound := -1e50;
318     upper_bound := 100;
319     nominal := 1.0;
320     END exp_sub;
321    
322     ATOM power_sub REFINES factor;
323     lower_bound := -25;
324     upper_bound := 25;
325     nominal := 1.0;
326     END power_sub;
327    
328     (* T E M P E R A T U R E
329     --------------------- *)
330    
331     ATOM temperature REFINES solver_var
332     DIMENSION TMP
333     DEFAULT 298.0{K};
334     lower_bound := 1.0e-6{K};
335     upper_bound := 10000{K};
336     nominal := 298.0{K};
337     END temperature;
338    
339     ATOM inverse_temperature REFINES solver_var
340     DIMENSION 1/TMP
341     DEFAULT 0.00366099{1/K};
342     lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
343     upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
344     nominal := 0.00366099{1/K};
345     END inverse_temperature;
346    
347 johnpye 259 ATOM delta_temperature REFINES solver_var
348     DIMENSION TMP
349 johnpye 289 DEFAULT 0.1{K};
350 johnpye 259 lower_bound := -1000{K};
351     upper_bound := +1000{K};
352 johnpye 289 nominal := 5{K};
353 johnpye 259 END delta_temperature;
354    
355 aw0a 1 (* forces *)
356     ATOM force REFINES solver_var
357 johnpye 783 DIMENSION M*L/T^2
358     DEFAULT 1.0{N};
359     lower_bound := -1e20{N};
360     upper_bound := 1e20{N};
361     nominal := 1.0{kN};
362 aw0a 1 END force;
363    
364 johnpye 783 ATOM force_per_length REFINES solver_var
365     DIMENSION M/T^2
366     DEFAULT 1.0{N/m};
367     lower_bound := -1e20{N/m};
368     upper_bound := 1e20{N/m};
369     nominal := 1.0{N/m};
370     END force_per_length;
371    
372 johnpye 857 ATOM force_per_volume REFINES solver_var
373     DIMENSION M/T^2/L^2
374     DEFAULT 1.0{N/m^3};
375     lower_bound := -1e20{N/m^3};
376     upper_bound := 1e20{N/m^3};
377     nominal := 1.0{N/m^3};
378     END force_per_volume;
379    
380 johnpye 783 ATOM surface_tension REFINES solver_var
381     DIMENSION M/T^2
382     DEFAULT 1.0{N/m};
383     lower_bound := 0{N/m};
384     upper_bound := 1e20{N/m};
385     nominal := 1.0{N/m};
386     END surface_tension;
387    
388 aw0a 1 (* P R E S S U R E
389     --------------- *)
390    
391     ATOM pressure REFINES solver_var
392     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
393     DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
394     lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
395     upper_bound := 5000{atm};
396     nominal := 1.0{atm};
397     END pressure;
398 aw0a 417
399 jpye 1385 ATOM pressure_rate REFINES solver_var
400     DIMENSION M/L/T^3
401     DEFAULT -1 {kPa/s};
402     lower_bound := -5 {bar/s};
403     upper_bound := +5 {bar/s};
404     nominal := 1 {kPa/s};
405     END pressure_rate;
406    
407 aw0a 417 ATOM delta_pressure REFINES solver_var
408     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
409     DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
410 johnpye 783 lower_bound := -1000{atm};
411 aw0a 417 upper_bound := 1000{atm};
412     nominal := 1.0{atm};
413     END delta_pressure;
414 aw0a 1
415     ATOM vapor_pressure REFINES pressure
416     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
417     DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
418     lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
419     upper_bound := 5000{atm};
420     nominal := 0.5{atm};
421     END vapor_pressure;
422    
423     ATOM k_constant REFINES solver_var
424 johnpye 669 (* what IS this ? ? ? (it rings a bell...) *)
425 aw0a 1 DIMENSION T^2/L^5
426     DEFAULT 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
427     lower_bound := 0.001 {s^2/ft^5};
428     upper_bound := 5000 {s^2/ft^5};
429     nominal := 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
430     END k_constant;
431    
432 johnpye 837 ATOM youngs_modulus REFINES solver_var
433     (* the measure of the physical stiffness of a material *)
434     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
435     DEFAULT 200 {GPa};
436     lower_bound := 0 {Pa};
437     upper_bound := 1500 {GPa};
438     nominal := 40 {GPa};
439     END youngs_modulus;
440    
441 johnpye 669 ATOM pressure_per_length REFINES solver_var
442     DIMENSION M/L^2/T^2
443     DEFAULT 50 {Pa/m};
444 johnpye 863 lower_bound := -1e20{bar/m};
445     upper_bound := +1e20{bar/m};
446 johnpye 669 nominal := 50 {Pa/m};
447     END pressure_per_length;
448 johnpye 837
449 aw0a 1
450     (* M A S S / M O L E Q U A N T I T I E S
451     -------------------------------------- *)
452    
453     ATOM molar_mass REFINES solver_var
454     DIMENSION M/Q
455     DEFAULT 100.0{g/g_mole};
456     lower_bound := 0.0{g/g_mole};
457     upper_bound := 1e9{g/g_mole};
458     nominal := 100.0{g/g_mole};
459     END molar_mass;
460    
461     ATOM mass REFINES solver_var
462     DIMENSION M
463     DEFAULT 10.0{kg};
464     lower_bound := 0.0{kg};
465     upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
466     nominal := 10.0{kg};
467     END mass;
468    
469     ATOM mole_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q DEFAULT 1 {mole};
470     END mole_scale;
471    
472     ATOM mole REFINES solver_var
473     DIMENSION Q
474     DEFAULT 10.0{lb_mole};
475     lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole};
476     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
477     nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
478     END mole;
479    
480     ATOM mass_rate REFINES solver_var
481     DIMENSION M/T
482     DEFAULT 50{g/s};
483     lower_bound := 0.0{g/s};
484     upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
485     nominal := 100.0{g/s};
486     END mass_rate;
487    
488 jpye 1483 CONSTANT mass_rate_constant
489     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/T;
490    
491 johnpye 783 ATOM mass_flux REFINES solver_var
492     DIMENSION M/T/L^2
493     DEFAULT 10{kg/s/m^2};
494     lower_bound := -1e12{kg/s/m^2};
495     upper_bound := 1e12{kg/s/m^2};
496     nominal := 10.0{kg/s/m^2};
497     END mass_flux;
498    
499 johnpye 669 ATOM mass_rate_rate REFINES solver_var
500     DIMENSION M/T^2
501     DEFAULT 10{g/s/s};
502     lower_bound := -1e50{g/s/s};
503     upper_bound := 1e50{g/s/s};
504     nominal := 10.0{g/s/s};
505     END mass_rate_rate;
506    
507     ATOM mass_rate_per_length REFINES solver_var
508     DIMENSION M/T/L
509     DEFAULT 0.1 {kg/s/m};
510     lower_bound := -1e50 {kg/s/m};
511     upper_bound := 1e50 {kg/s/m};
512     nominal := 1.0 {kg/s/m};
513     END mass_rate_per_length;
514    
515    
516 aw0a 1 ATOM molar_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q/T DEFAULT 1 {mole/second};
517     END molar_rate_scale;
518    
519     ATOM molar_rate REFINES solver_var
520     DIMENSION Q/T
521     DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
522     lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
523     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
524     nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
525     END molar_rate;
526    
527     ATOM conc_rate REFINES solver_var
528     DIMENSION Q/L^3/T
529     DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
530     lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
531     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
532     nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
533     END conc_rate;
534    
535    
536     ATOM mole_fraction REFINES fraction
537     DIMENSIONLESS
538     DEFAULT 0.5;
539     lower_bound := 0.0;
540     nominal := 0.3;
541     upper_bound := 1.0;
542     END mole_fraction;
543    
544     ATOM mass_fraction REFINES fraction
545     DIMENSIONLESS
546     DEFAULT 0.5;
547     lower_bound := 0.0;
548     nominal := 0.3;
549     upper_bound := 1.0;
550     END mass_fraction;
551    
552    
553     (* V O L U M E Q U A N T I T I E S
554     -------------------------------- *)
555    
556     ATOM molar_volume REFINES solver_var
557     DIMENSION L^3/Q
558     DEFAULT 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
559     lower_bound := 0.0{cm^3/g_mole};
560     upper_bound := 1e50{cm^3/g_mole};
561     nominal := 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
562     END molar_volume;
563    
564     ATOM volume_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3 DEFAULT 1.0 {m^3};
565     END volume_scale;
566    
567     ATOM volume REFINES solver_var
568     DIMENSION L^3
569     DEFAULT 100.0{ft^3};
570     lower_bound := 0.0{ft^3};
571     upper_bound := 1e50{ft^3};
572     nominal := 100.0{ft^3};
573     END volume;
574    
575     ATOM volume_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3/T DEFAULT 1{m^3/s};
576     END volume_rate_scale;
577    
578     ATOM volume_rate REFINES solver_var
579     DIMENSION L^3/T
580     DEFAULT 100.0{gpm};
581     lower_bound := 0.0{gpm};
582     upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
583     nominal := 100.0{gpm};
584     END volume_rate;
585    
586     ATOM volume_rate_square REFINES solver_var
587     DIMENSION L^6/T^2
588     DEFAULT 100.0{ft^6/s^2};
589     lower_bound := 0.0{ft^6/s^2};
590     upper_bound := 1e50{ft^6/s^2};
591     nominal := 100 {ft^6/s^2};
592     END volume_rate_square;
593    
594     ATOM volume_expansivity REFINES solver_var
595     DIMENSION 1/TMP
596     DEFAULT 0.001{1/K};
597     lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
598     upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
599     nominal := 0.001{1/K};
600     END volume_expansivity;
601    
602    
603     (* D E N S I T Y Q U A N T I T I E S
604     ---------------------------------- *)
605    
606     ATOM molar_density REFINES solver_var
607     DIMENSION Q/L^3
608     DEFAULT 0.1{mole/m^3};
609     lower_bound := 0.0{mole/m^3};
610     upper_bound := 1e50{mole/m^3};
611     nominal := 0.1{mole/m^3};
612     END molar_density;
613    
614     ATOM mass_density REFINES solver_var
615     DIMENSION M/L^3
616     DEFAULT 1.0{g/cm^3};
617     lower_bound := 0.0{g/cm^3};
618     upper_bound := 1e50{g/cm^3};
619     nominal := 1.0{g/cm^3};
620     END mass_density;
621    
622    
623     (* E N E R G Y Q U A N T I T I E S
624     ------------------------------------ *)
625    
626     ATOM molar_energy REFINES solver_var
627     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q
628     DEFAULT 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
629     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
630     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
631     nominal := 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
632     END molar_energy;
633    
634     ATOM energy_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2 DEFAULT 1{joule};
635     END energy_scale;
636    
637     ATOM energy REFINES solver_var
638     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2
639     DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU};
640     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU};
641     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU};
642     nominal := 100000.0{BTU};
643     END energy;
644    
645 jpye 2599 ATOM energy_per_area REFINES solver_var
646     DIMENSION M/T^2
647     DEFAULT 1000{kJ/m^2};
648     lower_bound := -1e50{kJ/m^2};
649     upper_bound := 1e50{kJ/m^2};
650     nominal := 1000{kJ/m^2};
651     END energy_per_area;
652    
653 johnpye 888 ATOM energy_per_volume REFINES solver_var
654     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
655     DEFAULT 1000{kJ/L};
656     lower_bound := -1e50{kJ/L};
657     upper_bound := 1e50{kJ/L};
658     nominal := 1000{kJ/L};
659     END energy_per_volume;
660    
661 aw0a 1 ATOM energy_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3 DEFAULT 1{watt};
662     END energy_rate_scale;
663    
664     ATOM energy_rate REFINES solver_var
665     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
666     DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU/hour};
667     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
668     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
669     nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
670     END energy_rate;
671    
672 johnpye 669 ATOM power_per_length REFINES solver_var
673     DIMENSION M*L/T^3
674     DEFAULT 1.0{kW/m};
675     lower_bound := -1e50{kW/m};
676     upper_bound := 1e50{kW/m};
677     nominal := 1.0{kW/m};
678     END power_per_length;
679    
680 johnpye 888 ATOM power_per_volume REFINES solver_var
681     DIMENSION M/L/T^3
682     DEFAULT 1.0{kW/m^3};
683     lower_bound := -1e50{kW/m^3};
684     upper_bound := 1e50{kW/m^3};
685     nominal := 1.0{kW/m^3};
686     END power_per_volume;
687    
688 jpye 1581 ATOM power_per_area REFINES solver_var
689     DIMENSION M/T^3
690     DEFAULT 1.0{kW/m^2};
691 jpye 2597 lower_bound := -1e50{kW/m^2};
692     upper_bound := 1e50{kW/m^2};
693     nominal := 1.0{kW/m^2};
694 jpye 1581 END power_per_area;
695    
696 jpye 1628 ATOM power_per_temperature REFINES solver_var
697     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
698     DEFAULT 1.0{kW/K};
699     lower_bound := -1e30{kW/K};
700     upper_bound := 1e30{kW/K};
701     nominal := 1.0 {kW/K};
702     END power_per_temperature;
703    
704 johnpye 821 ATOM irradiance REFINES solver_var
705     DIMENSION M/T^3
706     DEFAULT 1000{W/m^2};
707     lower_bound := 0{W/m^2};
708 johnpye 822 upper_bound := 1.5{MW/m^2}; (* a bit more that the max possible from sunlight *)
709 johnpye 821 nominal := 300{W/m^2};
710     END irradiance;
711    
712 johnpye 822 ATOM irradiation REFINES solver_var
713     DIMENSION M/T^2
714     DEFAULT 1000{J/m^2};
715     lower_bound := 0{J/m^2};
716     upper_bound := 1e50{J/m^2}; (* a bit more that the max possible from sunlight *)
717     nominal := 300{J/m^2};
718     END irradiation;
719    
720    
721 johnpye 288 ATOM molar_heat_capacity REFINES solver_var
722 aw0a 1 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
723     DEFAULT 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
724     lower_bound := 0.0{J/mole/K};
725     upper_bound := 1e60{J/mole/K};
726     nominal := 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
727 johnpye 288 END molar_heat_capacity;
728 aw0a 1
729     ATOM molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
730     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
731 johnpye 821 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
732     lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
733     upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
734     nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
735 aw0a 1 END molar_energy_rate;
736    
737     (* E N T R O P Y Q U A N T I T I E S
738     ---------------------------------- *)
739    
740     ATOM molar_entropy REFINES solver_var
741     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
742     DEFAULT 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
743     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
744     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
745     nominal := 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
746     END molar_entropy;
747    
748     ATOM entropy REFINES solver_var
749     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/TMP
750     DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/R};
751     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/R};
752     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/R};
753     nominal := 1000.0{BTU/R};
754     END entropy;
755    
756     ATOM entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
757     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
758     DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
759     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
760     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
761     nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
762     END entropy_rate;
763    
764    
765    
766     (* E Q U I L I B R I U M Q U A N T I T I E S
767     ------------------------------------------ *)
768    
769     ATOM partition_coefficient REFINES factor (* new *)
770     DEFAULT 1.0;
771     lower_bound := 1.0e-10;
772     upper_bound := 30.0;
773     nominal := 1.0;
774     END partition_coefficient;
775    
776     ATOM relative_volatility REFINES partition_coefficient; (* new *)
777     END relative_volatility;
778    
779    
780     (* M O N E T A R Y Q U A N T I T I E S
781     ------------------------------------ *)
782    
783     ATOM monetary_unit REFINES solver_var
784     DIMENSION C
785 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 100.0{USD};
786     lower_bound := -1e50{USD};
787     upper_bound := 1e50{USD};
788     nominal := 100.0{USD};
789 aw0a 1 END monetary_unit;
790    
791 johnpye 844 ATOM cost_per_volume REFINES solver_var
792 aw0a 1 DIMENSION C/L^3
793 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/gallon};
794     lower_bound := 0.0{USD/gallon};
795     upper_bound := 1e50{USD/gallon};
796     nominal := 1.0{USD/gallon};
797 johnpye 844 END cost_per_volume;
798 aw0a 1
799 johnpye 844 ATOM cost_per_mass REFINES solver_var
800 aw0a 1 DIMENSION C/M
801 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lbm};
802     lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lbm};
803     upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lbm};
804     nominal := 1.0{USD/lbm};
805 johnpye 844 END cost_per_mass;
806 aw0a 1
807 jpye 1483 CONSTANT cost_per_mass_constant
808     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION C/M;
809    
810 johnpye 844 ATOM cost_per_mole REFINES solver_var
811 aw0a 1 DIMENSION C/Q
812 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
813     lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lb_mole};
814     upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lb_mole};
815     nominal := 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
816 johnpye 844 END cost_per_mole;
817 aw0a 1
818 johnpye 844 ATOM cost_per_time REFINES solver_var
819 aw0a 1 DIMENSION C/T
820 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/min};
821     lower_bound := 0.0{USD/min};
822     upper_bound := 1e50{USD/min};
823     nominal := 1.0{USD/min};
824 johnpye 844 END cost_per_time;
825 aw0a 1
826 johnpye 844 ATOM cost_per_energy REFINES solver_var
827 aw0a 1 DIMENSION C*T^2/M/L^2
828 johnpye 109 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/BTU};
829     lower_bound := 0.0{USD/BTU};
830     upper_bound := 1e50{USD/BTU};
831     nominal := 1.0{USD/BTU};
832 johnpye 844 END cost_per_energy;
833 aw0a 1
834 jpye 1483 CONSTANT cost_per_mass_per_distance_constant
835     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION C/M/L;
836 aw0a 1
837 jpye 1483
838 aw0a 1 (* S U R V E Y I N G Q U A N T I T I E S
839     --------------------------------------- *)
840    
841     ATOM distance REFINES solver_var
842     DIMENSION L
843     DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
844     lower_bound := 0.0{ft};
845     upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
846     nominal := 10.0{ft};
847     END distance;
848    
849 jpye 1483 CONSTANT distance_constant
850     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L;
851    
852 aw0a 1 ATOM area REFINES solver_var
853     DIMENSION L^2
854 johnpye 868 DEFAULT 1{m^2};
855     lower_bound := 0.0{m^2};
856     upper_bound := 1e50{m^2};
857     nominal := 1{m^2};
858 aw0a 1 END area;
859    
860     ATOM inverse_area REFINES solver_var
861     DIMENSION L^-2
862     DEFAULT 1{1/ft^2};
863     lower_bound := 0.0{1/ft^2};
864     upper_bound := 1e50{1/ft^2};
865     nominal := 1.0{1/ft^2};
866     END inverse_area;
867    
868     ATOM angle REFINES solver_var
869     DIMENSION P
870     DEFAULT 1 {rad};
871     lower_bound := -1e50 {rad};
872     upper_bound := 1e50 {rad};
873     nominal := 1 {rad};
874     END angle;
875    
876     ATOM solid_angle REFINES solver_var
877     DIMENSION S
878     DEFAULT 1 {srad};
879     lower_bound := -1e50 {srad};
880     upper_bound := 1e50 {srad};
881     nominal := 1 {srad};
882     END solid_angle;
883    
884     (* M O T I O N Q U A N T I T I E S
885     --------------------------------- *)
886    
887     ATOM time REFINES solver_var
888     DIMENSION T
889     DEFAULT 60.0{s};
890     lower_bound := -1e50{s};
891     upper_bound := 1e50{s};
892     nominal := 60.0{s};
893     END time;
894    
895     ATOM speed REFINES solver_var
896     DIMENSION L/T
897     DEFAULT 3.0{ft/s};
898     lower_bound := -1e50{m/s};
899     upper_bound := 1e50{m/s};
900     nominal := 1.0{m/s};
901     END speed;
902 jose 2071
903     ATOM angular_speed REFINES solver_var
904     DIMENSION P/T
905     DEFAULT 1.0 {rad/s};
906     lower_bound := -1e50{rad/s};
907     upper_bound := 1e50{rad/s};
908     nominal := 1 {rad/s};
909     END angular_speed;
910 aw0a 1
911     ATOM acceleration REFINES solver_var
912     DIMENSION L/T^2
913     DEFAULT 9.8{m/s^2};
914     lower_bound := -1e50{m/s^2};
915     upper_bound := 1e50{m/s^2};
916     nominal := 9.8{m/s^2};
917     END acceleration;
918    
919     ATOM frequency REFINES solver_var
920     DIMENSION 1/T
921     DEFAULT 60.0{1/s};
922     lower_bound := 0.0{1/s};
923     upper_bound := 1e50{1/s};
924     nominal := 60.0{1/s};
925     END frequency;
926    
927 johnpye 669 ATOM stiffness REFINES solver_var
928     DIMENSION M/T^2
929     DEFAULT 1 {N/m};
930     lower_bound := 0 {N/m};
931     upper_bound := 1e12 {N/m};
932     nominal := 1 {N/m};
933     END stiffness;
934 aw0a 1
935 jpye 2602 ATOM damping_coefficient REFINES solver_var
936     DIMENSION M/T
937     DEFAULT 1 {N*s/m};
938     lower_bound := 0 {N*s/m};
939     upper_bound := 1e12 {N*s/m};
940     nominal := 1 {N*s/m};
941     END damping_coefficient;
942 johnpye 669
943    
944 aw0a 1 (* T R A N S P O R T Q U A N T I T I E S
945     --------------------------------------- *)
946    
947     ATOM viscosity REFINES solver_var
948     DIMENSION M/L/T
949     DEFAULT 1.0{cP};
950     lower_bound := 0.0{cP};
951     upper_bound := 1e50{cP};
952     nominal := 1.0{cP};
953     END viscosity;
954    
955 jpye 1808 ATOM kinematic_viscosity REFINES solver_var
956     DIMENSION L^2/T
957     DEFAULT 1e-6 {m^2/s};
958     lower_bound := 0.0 {m^2/s};
959     upper_bound := 1e50 {m^2/s};
960     nominal := 1.3 {g/s/m} * 0.001 {m^3/kg};
961     END kinematic_viscosity;
962    
963 aw0a 1 ATOM thermal_conductivity REFINES solver_var
964     DIMENSION M*L/T^3/TMP
965     DEFAULT 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
966     lower_bound := 0.0{BTU/hour/ft/R};
967     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/ft/R};
968     nominal := 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
969     END thermal_conductivity;
970    
971     ATOM diffusivity REFINES solver_var
972     DIMENSION L^2/T
973     DEFAULT 1.0{cm^2/s};
974     lower_bound := 0.0{cm^2/s};
975     upper_bound := 1e50{cm^2/s};
976     nominal := 1.0{cm^2/s};
977     END diffusivity;
978    
979    
980     (* E L E C T R O - M A G N E T I C Q U A N T I T I E S
981     ---------------------------------------------------- *)
982    
983     ATOM voltage REFINES solver_var
984     DIMENSION M*L^2/(T^3*E)
985     DEFAULT 10.0{volt};
986     lower_bound := -1e50{volt};
987     upper_bound := 1e50{volt};
988     nominal := 10.0{volt};
989     END voltage;
990    
991     ATOM resistance REFINES solver_var
992     DIMENSION M*L^2/(E^2*T^3)
993     DEFAULT 10.0{ohm};
994     lower_bound := -1e50{ohm};
995     upper_bound := 1e50{ohm};
996     nominal := 10.0{ohm};
997     END resistance;
998    
999 jpye 2488 ATOM conductance REFINES solver_var
1000     DIMENSION (E^2*T^3)/(M*L^2)
1001     DEFAULT 0.01{siemens};
1002     lower_bound := -1e50{siemens};
1003     upper_bound := 1e50{siemens};
1004     nominal := 0.01{siemens};
1005     END conductance;
1006    
1007 aw0a 1 ATOM current REFINES solver_var
1008     DIMENSION E
1009     DEFAULT 1.0{amp};
1010     lower_bound := -1e50{amp};
1011     upper_bound := 1e50{amp};
1012     nominal := 1.0{amp};
1013     END current;
1014    
1015     ATOM capacitance REFINES solver_var
1016     DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^2
1017     DEFAULT 1.0{coulomb/volt};
1018     lower_bound := -1e50{coulomb/volt};
1019     upper_bound := 1e50{coulomb/volt};
1020     nominal := 1.0{coulomb/volt};
1021     END capacitance;
1022    
1023     ATOM inductance REFINES solver_var
1024     DIMENSION M*L^2/E^2/T^2
1025     DEFAULT 1.0{volt*s/amp};
1026     lower_bound := -1e50{volt*s/amp};
1027     upper_bound := 1e50{volt*s/amp};
1028     nominal := 1.0{volt*s/amp};
1029     END inductance;
1030    
1031     ATOM magnetic_field REFINES solver_var
1032     DIMENSION E/L
1033     DEFAULT 1.0{amp/m};
1034     lower_bound := -1e50{amp/m};
1035     upper_bound := 1e50{amp/m};
1036     nominal := 1.0{amp/m};
1037     END magnetic_field;
1038    
1039     ATOM electric_field REFINES solver_var
1040     DIMENSION M*L/E/T^3
1041     DEFAULT 1.0{volt/m};
1042     lower_bound := -1e50{volt/m};
1043     upper_bound := 1e50{volt/m};
1044     nominal := 1.0{volt/m};
1045     END electric_field;
1046    
1047 jpye 2488 ATOM electrical_conductivity REFINES solver_var
1048     DIMENSION E^2*T^3/M/L^3
1049     DEFAULT 1000 {S/m};
1050     lower_bound := 1e-50 {S/m};
1051     upper_bound := 1e50 {S/m};
1052     nominal := 1000 {S/m};
1053     END electrical_conductivity;
1054    
1055     ATOM thermoelectric_power_factor REFINES solver_var
1056     DIMENSION M*L/T^3/TMP^2
1057     DEFAULT 10e-5 {W/m/K^2};
1058     lower_bound := 1e-50 {W/m/K^2};
1059     upper_bound := 1e50 {W/m/K^2};
1060     nominal := 10e-5 {W/m/K^2};
1061     END thermoelectric_power_factor;
1062    
1063     ATOM seebeck_coefficient REFINES solver_var
1064     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/E/TMP
1065     DEFAULT 200 {micro*V/K};
1066     lower_bound := 1e-50 {micro*V/K};
1067     upper_bound := 1e50 {micro*V/K};
1068     nominal := 200 {micro*V/K};
1069     END seebeck_coefficient;
1070    
1071    
1072 aw0a 1 (* D I F F E R E N T I A L Q U A N T I T I E S
1073     ------------------------------------------- *)
1074    
1075     ATOM delta_distance REFINES solver_var
1076     DIMENSION L
1077     DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
1078     lower_bound := -1e50{ft};
1079     upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
1080     nominal := 10.0{ft};
1081     END delta_distance;
1082    
1083 johnpye 868 ATOM delta_area REFINES solver_var
1084     DIMENSION L^2
1085     DEFAULT 1{m^2};
1086     lower_bound := -1e50{m^2};
1087     upper_bound := 1e50{m^2};
1088     nominal := 1{m^2};
1089     END delta_area;
1090    
1091 johnpye 259 ATOM temperature_rate REFINES solver_var
1092 aw0a 1 DIMENSION TMP/T
1093     DEFAULT 0{K/s};
1094     lower_bound := -100{K/s};
1095     upper_bound := 100{K/s};
1096     nominal := 298.0{K/s};
1097 johnpye 259 END temperature_rate;
1098 aw0a 1
1099     ATOM delta_mass REFINES solver_var
1100     DIMENSION M
1101     DEFAULT 0.0{kg};
1102     lower_bound := -1e50{kg};
1103     upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
1104     nominal := 10.0{kg};
1105     END delta_mass;
1106    
1107     ATOM delta_mole REFINES solver_var
1108     DIMENSION Q
1109     DEFAULT 0{lb_mole};
1110     lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole};
1111     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
1112     nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
1113     END delta_mole;
1114    
1115     ATOM delta_mass_rate REFINES solver_var
1116     DIMENSION M/T
1117     DEFAULT 0{g/s};
1118     lower_bound := -1e50{g/s};
1119     upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
1120     nominal := 100.0{g/s};
1121     END delta_mass_rate;
1122    
1123     ATOM delta_molar_rate REFINES solver_var
1124     DIMENSION Q/T
1125     DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
1126     lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole/hour};
1127     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
1128     nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
1129     END delta_molar_rate;
1130    
1131     ATOM delta_volume_rate REFINES solver_var
1132     DIMENSION L^3/T
1133     DEFAULT 0.0{gpm};
1134     lower_bound := -1e50{gpm};
1135     upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
1136     nominal := 100.0{gpm};
1137     END delta_volume_rate;
1138    
1139 johnpye 669 ATOM density_rate REFINES solver_var
1140     DIMENSION M/L^3/T
1141     DEFAULT 0.0 {kg/m^3/s};
1142     lower_bound := -1e50 {kg/m^3/s};
1143     upper_bound := 1e50 {kg/m^3/s};
1144     nominal := 0.1 {kg/m^3/s};
1145     END density_rate;
1146    
1147 aw0a 1 ATOM delta_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
1148     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
1149     DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour};
1150     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
1151     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
1152     nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
1153     END delta_energy_rate;
1154    
1155     ATOM delta_molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
1156     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
1157 johnpye 821 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1158     lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1159     upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1160     nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/h};
1161 aw0a 1 END delta_molar_energy_rate;
1162    
1163 jpye 1941 ATOM delta_entropy REFINES solver_var
1164     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/TMP
1165     DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/R};
1166     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/R};
1167     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/R};
1168     nominal := 1000.0{BTU/R};
1169     END delta_entropy;
1170    
1171 aw0a 1 ATOM delta_entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
1172     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
1173     DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour/R};
1174     lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
1175     upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
1176     nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
1177     END delta_entropy_rate;
1178    
1179 johnpye 669
1180 aw0a 1 (* C O N T R O L L E R Q U A N T I T I E S
1181     ---------------------------------------- *)
1182    
1183     ATOM mass_sec REFINES solver_var
1184     DIMENSION M*T
1185     DEFAULT 0.0{kg*s};
1186     lower_bound := -1e50{kg*s};
1187     upper_bound := 1e50{kg*s};
1188     nominal := 10.0{kg*s};
1189     END mass_sec;
1190    
1191     ATOM mole_sec REFINES solver_var
1192     DIMENSION Q*T
1193     DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole*s};
1194     lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole*s};
1195     upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole*s};
1196     nominal := 10.0{lb_mole*s};
1197     END mole_sec;
1198 johnpye 837
1199 johnpye 846 (* D I F F E R E N T I A L S *)
1200    
1201     ATOM rate REFINES solver_var
1202     DIMENSION T^-1
1203     DEFAULT 0{s^-1};
1204     lower_bound := -1e50{s^-1};
1205     upper_bound := 1e50{s^-1};
1206     nominal := 1{s^-1};
1207     END rate;
1208    
1209 johnpye 837 (* M E C H A N I C AL P R O P E R T I E S
1210     ---------------------------------------- *)
1211    
1212 johnpye 866 ATOM deflection REFINES solver_var (* to facilitate different display units for small values *)
1213 johnpye 840 DIMENSION L
1214     DEFAULT 1 {mm};
1215     lower_bound := -10{m};
1216     upper_bound := 10{m};
1217     nominal := 5{mm};
1218     END deflection;
1219    
1220 johnpye 866 ATOM second_moment_of_area REFINES solver_var (* for use in beam bending problems *)
1221 johnpye 837 DIMENSION L^4
1222     DEFAULT 6.67e5 {mm^4}; (* for 150UB14 Universal Beam, AISC (Australia) *)
1223     lower_bound := 0 {mm^4};
1224     upper_bound := 10000e6 {mm^4};
1225     nominal := 1e6 {mm^4}; (* this may be too high still *)
1226     END second_moment_of_area;
1227 johnpye 844
1228 johnpye 866 ATOM polar_moment_of_inertia REFINES solver_var (* for use in torsion problems *)
1229     DIMENSION L^4
1230     DEFAULT 28.2e3 {mm^4}; (* for 150UB14 Universal Beam, AISC (Australia) *)
1231     lower_bound := 0 {mm^4};
1232     upper_bound := 10000e3 {mm^4};
1233     nominal := 100e3 {mm^4}; (* this may be too high still *)
1234     END polar_moment_of_inertia;
1235    
1236 johnpye 844 CONSTANT second_moment_of_area_constant
1237     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L^4;
1238    
1239     CONSTANT length_constant
1240     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L;
1241    
1242     CONSTANT area_constant
1243     REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L^2;
1244    
1245     ATOM moment REFINES solver_var
1246     DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2
1247     DEFAULT 1 {kN*m};
1248     lower_bound := -1e5 {kN*m};
1249     upper_bound := 1e5 {kN*m};
1250     nominal := 1 {kN*m};
1251     END moment;
1252    
1253     ATOM stress REFINES solver_var
1254     DIMENSION M/L/T^2
1255     DEFAULT 1.0 {MPa};
1256     lower_bound := -5000 {MPa};
1257     upper_bound := 5000 {MPa};
1258     nominal := 1.0 {MPa};
1259     END stress;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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