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Revision 109 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed Dec 14 00:34:09 2005 UTC (18 years, 5 months ago) by johnpye
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Standardising all currency amounts to ISO 4217. USdollar and dollar
replaced by USD in all models in the library.
1 REQUIRE "system.a4l";
2 (* => system.a4l, basemodel.a4l *)
3 REQUIRE "measures.a4l";
4 (* => measures.a4l *)
5 PROVIDE "atoms.a4l";
6
7 (*
8 * atoms.a4l
9 * by Joseph J. Zaher, Benjamin A. Allan, Robert S. Huss
10 * Part of the ASCEND Library
11 * $Date: 1998/08/17 13:07:11 $
12 * $Revision: 1.11 $
13 * $Author: ballan $
14 * $Source: /afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/ascend/Repository/models/atoms.a4l,v $
15 *
16 * This file is part of the ASCEND Modeling Library.
17 *
18 * Copyright (C) 1994-1998 Carnegie Mellon University
19 *
20 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
21 * it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
22 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
23 * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
24 *
25 * The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it
26 * will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
27 * warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
28 * See the GNU General Public License for more details.
29 *
30 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
31 * along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
32 * Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
33 *)
34
35 (*============================================================================*
36
37 A T O M S . A 4 L
38 -------------------------
39
40 AUTHOR: Joseph J. Zaher
41
42 DATES: 07/91 - Original code.
43 02/92 - Eliminated "display_units" assignments, added
44 commonly used UNIVERSAL constants and transport
45 quantities.
46 04/92 - Added electro-magnetic quantities.
47 06/92 - Converted by Ben Allan to be compatible with ASCEND3C
48 08/92 - Additional monetary atoms added by Bob Huss
49 02/96 - Brought proper constants into the library. Ben Allan.
50 07/96 - Incorporated Ken Tyner's substitution atoms. BAA.
51 07/96 - Switched to REQUIRE syntax.
52 08/96 - Switched to REQUIRE ivpsystem.a4l.
53 08/97 - Switched to REQUIRE/PROVIDE syntax.
54
55 CONTENTS: ASCEND atom definitions for engineering variable types.
56 Many of the anticipated dimensional variables which occur
57 in engineering design calculations are given to provide a
58 means of standardization. Chosen defaults, nominal, and
59 lower and upper bound values should be re-specified if
60 necessary to enhance the convergence properties of
61 specific models. Units to be displayed are to be controlled
62 using the UNITS tool kit of the environment.
63
64 REQUIRES: see top of file.
65 *===========================================================================*)
66
67 (* G E N E R I C C O N S T A N T S ( C H E M . E . B I A S )
68 -------------------------------------------------------------------- *)
69
70 CONSTANT constant
71 (* any sloppiness about what is a constant will yield a wild real *)
72 REFINES real_constant;
73
74 (* dimensionless *)
75
76 CONSTANT critical_compressibility REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
77
78 CONSTANT acentric_factor REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
79
80 CONSTANT UNIFAC_size REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
81
82 CONSTANT Wilson_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
83
84 CONSTANT vapor_pressure_constant REFINES real_constant;
85
86 CONSTANT factor_constant REFINES real_constant DIMENSIONLESS;
87
88 (* molecular weight *)
89 CONSTANT molar_weight_constant
90 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/Q;
91
92 (* atomic mass *)
93 CONSTANT atomic_mass_constant
94 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M;
95
96 (* temperatures *)
97 CONSTANT temperature_constant
98 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION TMP;
99
100 CONSTANT boiling_temperature
101 REFINES temperature_constant;
102
103 CONSTANT critical_temperature
104 REFINES temperature_constant;
105
106 CONSTANT reference_temperature
107 REFINES temperature_constant;
108
109 CONSTANT UNIFAC_a
110 REFINES temperature_constant;
111
112 (* pressures *)
113 CONSTANT pressure_constant
114 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L/T^2;
115
116 CONSTANT critical_pressure
117 REFINES pressure_constant;
118
119 CONSTANT reference_pressure
120 REFINES pressure_constant;
121
122 (* molar volumes *)
123 CONSTANT molar_volume_constant
124 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION L^3/Q;
125
126 CONSTANT critical_volume
127 REFINES molar_volume_constant;
128
129 CONSTANT reference_molar_volume
130 REFINES molar_volume_constant;
131
132 (* mass densities *)
133 CONSTANT reference_mass_density
134 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M/L^3;
135
136 (* molar energies *)
137 CONSTANT molar_energy_constant
138 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q;
139
140 CONSTANT reference_molar_energy
141 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
142
143 CONSTANT enthalpy_of_formation_constant
144 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
145
146 CONSTANT free_energy_of_formation_constant
147 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
148
149 CONSTANT heat_of_vaporization_constant
150 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
151
152 CONSTANT Wilson_energy_constant
153 REFINES molar_energy_constant;
154
155 (* molar entropies *)
156 CONSTANT molar_entropy_constant
157 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
158
159 CONSTANT reference_molar_entropy
160 REFINES molar_entropy_constant;
161
162 (* other strange correlation coefficients *)
163 CONSTANT heat_capacity_constant
164 REFINES real_constant;
165
166 CONSTANT heat_capacity_a_constant
167 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP;
168
169 CONSTANT heat_capacity_b_constant
170 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^2;
171
172 CONSTANT heat_capacity_c_constant
173 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^3;
174
175 CONSTANT heat_capacity_d_constant
176 REFINES heat_capacity_constant DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP^4;
177
178 (*
179 CONSTANT
180 REFINES real_constant DIMENSION;
181 *)
182
183 (* U N I V E R S A L C O N S T A N T S
184 -------------------------------------- *)
185
186 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT gas_constant
187 (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP *)
188 REFINES real_constant :== 1{GAS_C};
189
190 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT gravity_constant
191 (* DIMENSION L/T^2 *)
192 REFINES real_constant :== 1{EARTH_G};
193
194 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT circle_constant
195 REFINES real_constant :== 1{PI};
196
197 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT speed_of_light
198 REFINES real_constant :== 1{LIGHT_C};
199
200 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT planck_constant
201 (* DIMENSION M*L^2/T *)
202 REFINES real_constant :== 1{PLANCK_C};
203
204 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT avogadro_constant
205 REFINES real_constant :== 1{AVOGADRO_C};
206
207 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permittivity_constant
208 (* DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^3 *)
209 REFINES real_constant :== 1{EPSILON0};
210
211 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT permeability_constant
212 REFINES real_constant :== 1{MU0};
213
214 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_charge
215 REFINES real_constant :== 1{eCHARGE};
216
217 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT electron_mass
218 REFINES real_constant :== 1{eMASS};
219
220 UNIVERSAL CONSTANT proton_mass
221 REFINES real_constant :== 1{pMASS};
222
223 (* B O O L E A N S *)
224
225 (* use these booleans *)
226 ATOM boolean_start_true REFINES boolean
227 DEFAULT TRUE;
228 END boolean_start_true;
229
230 ATOM boolean_start_false REFINES boolean
231 DEFAULT FALSE;
232 END boolean_start_false;
233
234 (* for backward compatibility *)
235 ATOM start_true REFINES boolean
236 DEFAULT TRUE;
237 END start_true;
238
239 ATOM start_false REFINES boolean
240 DEFAULT FALSE;
241 END start_false;
242
243
244 (* P A R A M E T E R S *)
245
246 UNIVERSAL ATOM bound_width REFINES real
247 (* not really a constant but a parameter to tell us how wide to
248 * put bounds from the current point, in relative terms.
249 * e.g. a.upper_bound := a + a.nominal * bound_width_instance;
250 *)
251 DIMENSIONLESS
252 DEFAULT 1.0e8;
253 END bound_width;
254
255 UNIVERSAL ATOM scaling_constant REFINES real
256 (* not really a constant but a parameter. which
257 * needs problem dependent information to be useful.
258 *)
259 DIMENSIONLESS
260 DEFAULT 1.0;
261 END scaling_constant;
262
263 UNIVERSAL ATOM ode_counter REFINES integer
264 DIMENSIONLESS
265 DEFAULT 1;
266 END ode_counter;
267
268 UNIVERSAL ATOM obs_counter REFINES integer
269 DIMENSIONLESS
270 DEFAULT 1;
271 END obs_counter;
272
273 ATOM real_parameter REFINES real;
274 END real_parameter;
275
276 ATOM length_parameter REFINES real_parameter
277 DIMENSION L
278 DEFAULT 1.0 {m};
279 END length_parameter;
280
281
282 (* D I M E N S I O N L E S S Q U A N T I T I E S
283 ---------------------------------------------- *)
284
285 ATOM positive_variable REFINES solver_var
286 (* one for the gams folks *)
287 DIMENSIONLESS
288 DEFAULT 1.0;
289 lower_bound := 0.0;
290 upper_bound := 1e20;
291 nominal := 1.0;
292 END positive_variable;
293
294 ATOM factor REFINES solver_var
295 DIMENSIONLESS
296 DEFAULT 1.0;
297 lower_bound := -1e50;
298 upper_bound := 1e50;
299 nominal := 1.0;
300 END factor;
301
302 ATOM variable REFINES solver_var
303 DIMENSIONLESS;
304 END variable;
305
306
307 ATOM fraction REFINES solver_var
308 DIMENSIONLESS
309 DEFAULT 0.5;
310 nominal := 1.0;
311 lower_bound := 0.0;
312 upper_bound := 1.0;
313 END fraction;
314
315 ATOM positive_factor REFINES factor;
316 lower_bound := 0.0;
317 END positive_factor;
318
319 ATOM small_factor REFINES factor;
320 lower_bound := -10.0;
321 upper_bound := 10.0;
322 END small_factor;
323
324 ATOM small_positive_factor REFINES factor;
325 lower_bound := 0.0;
326 upper_bound := 10.0;
327 END small_positive_factor;
328
329 ATOM reduced_pressure REFINES factor;
330 END reduced_pressure;
331
332 (* S U B S T I T U T I O N V A R I A B L E S
333 ------------------------------------------ *)
334 ATOM exp_sub REFINES factor ;
335 lower_bound := -1e50;
336 upper_bound := 100;
337 nominal := 1.0;
338 END exp_sub;
339
340 ATOM power_sub REFINES factor;
341 lower_bound := -25;
342 upper_bound := 25;
343 nominal := 1.0;
344 END power_sub;
345
346 (* T E M P E R A T U R E
347 --------------------- *)
348
349 ATOM temperature REFINES solver_var
350 DIMENSION TMP
351 DEFAULT 298.0{K};
352 lower_bound := 1.0e-6{K};
353 upper_bound := 10000{K};
354 nominal := 298.0{K};
355 END temperature;
356
357 ATOM inverse_temperature REFINES solver_var
358 DIMENSION 1/TMP
359 DEFAULT 0.00366099{1/K};
360 lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
361 upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
362 nominal := 0.00366099{1/K};
363 END inverse_temperature;
364
365 (* forces *)
366 ATOM force REFINES solver_var
367 DIMENSION M*L/T^2
368 DEFAULT 1.0{N};
369 lower_bound := -1e20{N};
370 upper_bound := 1e20{N};
371 nominal := 1.0{kN};
372 END force;
373
374 (* P R E S S U R E
375 --------------- *)
376
377 ATOM pressure REFINES solver_var
378 DIMENSION M/L/T^2
379 DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
380 lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
381 upper_bound := 5000{atm};
382 nominal := 1.0{atm};
383 END pressure;
384
385 ATOM vapor_pressure REFINES pressure
386 DIMENSION M/L/T^2
387 DEFAULT 1.0{atm};
388 lower_bound := 0.001{Pa};
389 upper_bound := 5000{atm};
390 nominal := 0.5{atm};
391 END vapor_pressure;
392
393 ATOM k_constant REFINES solver_var
394 (* what IS this ? ? ? *)
395 DIMENSION T^2/L^5
396 DEFAULT 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
397 lower_bound := 0.001 {s^2/ft^5};
398 upper_bound := 5000 {s^2/ft^5};
399 nominal := 1.0 {s^2/ft^5};
400 END k_constant;
401
402
403 (* M A S S / M O L E Q U A N T I T I E S
404 -------------------------------------- *)
405
406 ATOM molar_mass REFINES solver_var
407 DIMENSION M/Q
408 DEFAULT 100.0{g/g_mole};
409 lower_bound := 0.0{g/g_mole};
410 upper_bound := 1e9{g/g_mole};
411 nominal := 100.0{g/g_mole};
412 END molar_mass;
413
414 ATOM mass REFINES solver_var
415 DIMENSION M
416 DEFAULT 10.0{kg};
417 lower_bound := 0.0{kg};
418 upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
419 nominal := 10.0{kg};
420 END mass;
421
422 ATOM mole_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q DEFAULT 1 {mole};
423 END mole_scale;
424
425 ATOM mole REFINES solver_var
426 DIMENSION Q
427 DEFAULT 10.0{lb_mole};
428 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole};
429 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
430 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
431 END mole;
432
433 ATOM mass_rate REFINES solver_var
434 DIMENSION M/T
435 DEFAULT 50{g/s};
436 lower_bound := 0.0{g/s};
437 upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
438 nominal := 100.0{g/s};
439 END mass_rate;
440
441 ATOM molar_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION Q/T DEFAULT 1 {mole/second};
442 END molar_rate_scale;
443
444 ATOM molar_rate REFINES solver_var
445 DIMENSION Q/T
446 DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
447 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
448 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
449 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
450 END molar_rate;
451
452 ATOM conc_rate REFINES solver_var
453 DIMENSION Q/L^3/T
454 DEFAULT 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
455 lower_bound := 0.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
456 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
457 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/ft^3/hour};
458 END conc_rate;
459
460
461 ATOM mole_fraction REFINES fraction
462 DIMENSIONLESS
463 DEFAULT 0.5;
464 lower_bound := 0.0;
465 nominal := 0.3;
466 upper_bound := 1.0;
467 END mole_fraction;
468
469 ATOM mass_fraction REFINES fraction
470 DIMENSIONLESS
471 DEFAULT 0.5;
472 lower_bound := 0.0;
473 nominal := 0.3;
474 upper_bound := 1.0;
475 END mass_fraction;
476
477
478 (* V O L U M E Q U A N T I T I E S
479 -------------------------------- *)
480
481 ATOM molar_volume REFINES solver_var
482 DIMENSION L^3/Q
483 DEFAULT 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
484 lower_bound := 0.0{cm^3/g_mole};
485 upper_bound := 1e50{cm^3/g_mole};
486 nominal := 1000.0{cm^3/g_mole};
487 END molar_volume;
488
489 ATOM volume_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3 DEFAULT 1.0 {m^3};
490 END volume_scale;
491
492 ATOM volume REFINES solver_var
493 DIMENSION L^3
494 DEFAULT 100.0{ft^3};
495 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^3};
496 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^3};
497 nominal := 100.0{ft^3};
498 END volume;
499
500 ATOM volume_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION L^3/T DEFAULT 1{m^3/s};
501 END volume_rate_scale;
502
503 ATOM volume_rate REFINES solver_var
504 DIMENSION L^3/T
505 DEFAULT 100.0{gpm};
506 lower_bound := 0.0{gpm};
507 upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
508 nominal := 100.0{gpm};
509 END volume_rate;
510
511 ATOM volume_rate_square REFINES solver_var
512 DIMENSION L^6/T^2
513 DEFAULT 100.0{ft^6/s^2};
514 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^6/s^2};
515 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^6/s^2};
516 nominal := 100 {ft^6/s^2};
517 END volume_rate_square;
518
519 ATOM volume_expansivity REFINES solver_var
520 DIMENSION 1/TMP
521 DEFAULT 0.001{1/K};
522 lower_bound := 0.0{1/K};
523 upper_bound := 1e50{1/K};
524 nominal := 0.001{1/K};
525 END volume_expansivity;
526
527
528 (* D E N S I T Y Q U A N T I T I E S
529 ---------------------------------- *)
530
531 ATOM molar_density REFINES solver_var
532 DIMENSION Q/L^3
533 DEFAULT 0.1{mole/m^3};
534 lower_bound := 0.0{mole/m^3};
535 upper_bound := 1e50{mole/m^3};
536 nominal := 0.1{mole/m^3};
537 END molar_density;
538
539 ATOM mass_density REFINES solver_var
540 DIMENSION M/L^3
541 DEFAULT 1.0{g/cm^3};
542 lower_bound := 0.0{g/cm^3};
543 upper_bound := 1e50{g/cm^3};
544 nominal := 1.0{g/cm^3};
545 END mass_density;
546
547
548 (* E N E R G Y Q U A N T I T I E S
549 ------------------------------------ *)
550
551 ATOM molar_energy REFINES solver_var
552 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q
553 DEFAULT 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
554 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
555 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole};
556 nominal := 10000.0{BTU/lb_mole};
557 END molar_energy;
558
559 ATOM energy_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2 DEFAULT 1{joule};
560 END energy_scale;
561
562 ATOM energy REFINES solver_var
563 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2
564 DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU};
565 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU};
566 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU};
567 nominal := 100000.0{BTU};
568 END energy;
569
570 ATOM energy_rate_scale REFINES real DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3 DEFAULT 1{watt};
571 END energy_rate_scale;
572
573 ATOM energy_rate REFINES solver_var
574 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
575 DEFAULT 100000.0{BTU/hour};
576 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
577 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
578 nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
579 END energy_rate;
580
581 ATOM heat_capacity REFINES solver_var
582 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
583 DEFAULT 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
584 lower_bound := 0.0{J/mole/K};
585 upper_bound := 1e60{J/mole/K};
586 nominal := 1.00e5{J/mole/K};
587 END heat_capacity;
588
589 ATOM molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
590 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
591 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
592 lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
593 upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
594 nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
595 END molar_energy_rate;
596
597 (* E N T R O P Y Q U A N T I T I E S
598 ---------------------------------- *)
599
600 ATOM molar_entropy REFINES solver_var
601 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/Q/TMP
602 DEFAULT 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
603 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
604 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/lb_mole/R};
605 nominal := 100.0{BTU/lb_mole/R};
606 END molar_entropy;
607
608 ATOM entropy REFINES solver_var
609 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^2/TMP
610 DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/R};
611 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/R};
612 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/R};
613 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/R};
614 END entropy;
615
616 ATOM entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
617 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
618 DEFAULT 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
619 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
620 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
621 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
622 END entropy_rate;
623
624
625
626 (* E Q U I L I B R I U M Q U A N T I T I E S
627 ------------------------------------------ *)
628
629 ATOM partition_coefficient REFINES factor (* new *)
630 DEFAULT 1.0;
631 lower_bound := 1.0e-10;
632 upper_bound := 30.0;
633 nominal := 1.0;
634 END partition_coefficient;
635
636 ATOM relative_volatility REFINES partition_coefficient; (* new *)
637 END relative_volatility;
638
639
640 (* M O N E T A R Y Q U A N T I T I E S
641 ------------------------------------ *)
642
643 ATOM monetary_unit REFINES solver_var
644 DIMENSION C
645 DEFAULT 100.0{USD};
646 lower_bound := -1e50{USD};
647 upper_bound := 1e50{USD};
648 nominal := 100.0{USD};
649 END monetary_unit;
650
651 ATOM cost_per_volume REFINES solver_var
652 DIMENSION C/L^3
653 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/gallon};
654 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/gallon};
655 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/gallon};
656 nominal := 1.0{USD/gallon};
657 END cost_per_volume;
658
659 ATOM cost_per_mass REFINES solver_var
660 DIMENSION C/M
661 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lbm};
662 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lbm};
663 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lbm};
664 nominal := 1.0{USD/lbm};
665 END cost_per_mass;
666
667 ATOM cost_per_mole REFINES solver_var
668 DIMENSION C/Q
669 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
670 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/lb_mole};
671 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/lb_mole};
672 nominal := 1.0{USD/lb_mole};
673 END cost_per_mole;
674
675 ATOM cost_per_time REFINES solver_var
676 DIMENSION C/T
677 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/min};
678 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/min};
679 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/min};
680 nominal := 1.0{USD/min};
681 END cost_per_time;
682
683 ATOM cost_per_energy REFINES solver_var
684 DIMENSION C*T^2/M/L^2
685 DEFAULT 1.0{USD/BTU};
686 lower_bound := 0.0{USD/BTU};
687 upper_bound := 1e50{USD/BTU};
688 nominal := 1.0{USD/BTU};
689 END cost_per_energy;
690
691
692 (* S U R V E Y I N G Q U A N T I T I E S
693 --------------------------------------- *)
694
695 ATOM distance REFINES solver_var
696 DIMENSION L
697 DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
698 lower_bound := 0.0{ft};
699 upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
700 nominal := 10.0{ft};
701 END distance;
702
703 ATOM area REFINES solver_var
704 DIMENSION L^2
705 DEFAULT 10.0{ft^2};
706 lower_bound := 0.0{ft^2};
707 upper_bound := 1e50{ft^2};
708 nominal := 10.0{ft^2};
709 END area;
710
711 ATOM inverse_area REFINES solver_var
712 DIMENSION L^-2
713 DEFAULT 1{1/ft^2};
714 lower_bound := 0.0{1/ft^2};
715 upper_bound := 1e50{1/ft^2};
716 nominal := 1.0{1/ft^2};
717 END inverse_area;
718
719 ATOM angle REFINES solver_var
720 DIMENSION P
721 DEFAULT 1 {rad};
722 lower_bound := -1e50 {rad};
723 upper_bound := 1e50 {rad};
724 nominal := 1 {rad};
725 END angle;
726
727 ATOM solid_angle REFINES solver_var
728 DIMENSION S
729 DEFAULT 1 {srad};
730 lower_bound := -1e50 {srad};
731 upper_bound := 1e50 {srad};
732 nominal := 1 {srad};
733 END solid_angle;
734
735 (* M O T I O N Q U A N T I T I E S
736 --------------------------------- *)
737
738 ATOM time REFINES solver_var
739 DIMENSION T
740 DEFAULT 60.0{s};
741 lower_bound := -1e50{s};
742 upper_bound := 1e50{s};
743 nominal := 60.0{s};
744 END time;
745
746 ATOM speed REFINES solver_var
747 DIMENSION L/T
748 DEFAULT 3.0{ft/s};
749 lower_bound := -1e50{m/s};
750 upper_bound := 1e50{m/s};
751 nominal := 1.0{m/s};
752 END speed;
753
754 ATOM acceleration REFINES solver_var
755 DIMENSION L/T^2
756 DEFAULT 9.8{m/s^2};
757 lower_bound := -1e50{m/s^2};
758 upper_bound := 1e50{m/s^2};
759 nominal := 9.8{m/s^2};
760 END acceleration;
761
762 ATOM frequency REFINES solver_var
763 DIMENSION 1/T
764 DEFAULT 60.0{1/s};
765 lower_bound := 0.0{1/s};
766 upper_bound := 1e50{1/s};
767 nominal := 60.0{1/s};
768 END frequency;
769
770
771 (* T R A N S P O R T Q U A N T I T I E S
772 --------------------------------------- *)
773
774 ATOM viscosity REFINES solver_var
775 DIMENSION M/L/T
776 DEFAULT 1.0{cP};
777 lower_bound := 0.0{cP};
778 upper_bound := 1e50{cP};
779 nominal := 1.0{cP};
780 END viscosity;
781
782 ATOM thermal_conductivity REFINES solver_var
783 DIMENSION M*L/T^3/TMP
784 DEFAULT 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
785 lower_bound := 0.0{BTU/hour/ft/R};
786 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/ft/R};
787 nominal := 0.1{BTU/hour/ft/R};
788 END thermal_conductivity;
789
790 ATOM diffusivity REFINES solver_var
791 DIMENSION L^2/T
792 DEFAULT 1.0{cm^2/s};
793 lower_bound := 0.0{cm^2/s};
794 upper_bound := 1e50{cm^2/s};
795 nominal := 1.0{cm^2/s};
796 END diffusivity;
797
798
799 (* E L E C T R O - M A G N E T I C Q U A N T I T I E S
800 ---------------------------------------------------- *)
801
802 ATOM voltage REFINES solver_var
803 DIMENSION M*L^2/(T^3*E)
804 DEFAULT 10.0{volt};
805 lower_bound := -1e50{volt};
806 upper_bound := 1e50{volt};
807 nominal := 10.0{volt};
808 END voltage;
809
810 ATOM resistance REFINES solver_var
811 DIMENSION M*L^2/(E^2*T^3)
812 DEFAULT 10.0{ohm};
813 lower_bound := -1e50{ohm};
814 upper_bound := 1e50{ohm};
815 nominal := 10.0{ohm};
816 END resistance;
817
818 ATOM current REFINES solver_var
819 DIMENSION E
820 DEFAULT 1.0{amp};
821 lower_bound := -1e50{amp};
822 upper_bound := 1e50{amp};
823 nominal := 1.0{amp};
824 END current;
825
826 ATOM capacitance REFINES solver_var
827 DIMENSION E^2*T^4/M/L^2
828 DEFAULT 1.0{coulomb/volt};
829 lower_bound := -1e50{coulomb/volt};
830 upper_bound := 1e50{coulomb/volt};
831 nominal := 1.0{coulomb/volt};
832 END capacitance;
833
834 ATOM inductance REFINES solver_var
835 DIMENSION M*L^2/E^2/T^2
836 DEFAULT 1.0{volt*s/amp};
837 lower_bound := -1e50{volt*s/amp};
838 upper_bound := 1e50{volt*s/amp};
839 nominal := 1.0{volt*s/amp};
840 END inductance;
841
842 ATOM magnetic_field REFINES solver_var
843 DIMENSION E/L
844 DEFAULT 1.0{amp/m};
845 lower_bound := -1e50{amp/m};
846 upper_bound := 1e50{amp/m};
847 nominal := 1.0{amp/m};
848 END magnetic_field;
849
850 ATOM electric_field REFINES solver_var
851 DIMENSION M*L/E/T^3
852 DEFAULT 1.0{volt/m};
853 lower_bound := -1e50{volt/m};
854 upper_bound := 1e50{volt/m};
855 nominal := 1.0{volt/m};
856 END electric_field;
857
858 (* D I F F E R E N T I A L Q U A N T I T I E S
859 ------------------------------------------- *)
860
861 ATOM delta_distance REFINES solver_var
862 DIMENSION L
863 DEFAULT 10.0{ft};
864 lower_bound := -1e50{ft};
865 upper_bound := 1e50{ft};
866 nominal := 10.0{ft};
867 END delta_distance;
868
869 ATOM delta_temperature REFINES solver_var
870 DIMENSION TMP/T
871 DEFAULT 0{K/s};
872 lower_bound := -100{K/s};
873 upper_bound := 100{K/s};
874 nominal := 298.0{K/s};
875 END delta_temperature;
876
877 ATOM delta_mass REFINES solver_var
878 DIMENSION M
879 DEFAULT 0.0{kg};
880 lower_bound := -1e50{kg};
881 upper_bound := 1e50{kg};
882 nominal := 10.0{kg};
883 END delta_mass;
884
885 ATOM delta_mole REFINES solver_var
886 DIMENSION Q
887 DEFAULT 0{lb_mole};
888 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole};
889 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole};
890 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole};
891 END delta_mole;
892
893 ATOM delta_mass_rate REFINES solver_var
894 DIMENSION M/T
895 DEFAULT 0{g/s};
896 lower_bound := -1e50{g/s};
897 upper_bound := 1e50{g/s};
898 nominal := 100.0{g/s};
899 END delta_mass_rate;
900
901 ATOM delta_molar_rate REFINES solver_var
902 DIMENSION Q/T
903 DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole/hour};
904 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole/hour};
905 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole/hour};
906 nominal := 100.0{lb_mole/hour};
907 END delta_molar_rate;
908
909 ATOM delta_volume_rate REFINES solver_var
910 DIMENSION L^3/T
911 DEFAULT 0.0{gpm};
912 lower_bound := -1e50{gpm};
913 upper_bound := 1e50{gpm};
914 nominal := 100.0{gpm};
915 END delta_volume_rate;
916
917 ATOM delta_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
918 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3
919 DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour};
920 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour};
921 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour};
922 nominal := 100000.0{BTU/hour};
923 END delta_energy_rate;
924
925 ATOM delta_molar_energy_rate REFINES solver_var
926 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/Q
927 DEFAULT 0 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
928 lower_bound := -1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
929 upper_bound := 1e50 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
930 nominal := 10000.0 {BTU/lb_mole/hr};
931 END delta_molar_energy_rate;
932
933 ATOM delta_entropy_rate REFINES solver_var
934 DIMENSION M*L^2/T^3/TMP
935 DEFAULT 0.0{BTU/hour/R};
936 lower_bound := -1e50{BTU/hour/R};
937 upper_bound := 1e50{BTU/hour/R};
938 nominal := 1000.0{BTU/hour/R};
939 END delta_entropy_rate;
940
941 (* C O N T R O L L E R Q U A N T I T I E S
942 ---------------------------------------- *)
943
944 ATOM mass_sec REFINES solver_var
945 DIMENSION M*T
946 DEFAULT 0.0{kg*s};
947 lower_bound := -1e50{kg*s};
948 upper_bound := 1e50{kg*s};
949 nominal := 10.0{kg*s};
950 END mass_sec;
951
952 ATOM mole_sec REFINES solver_var
953 DIMENSION Q*T
954 DEFAULT 0.0{lb_mole*s};
955 lower_bound := -1e50{lb_mole*s};
956 upper_bound := 1e50{lb_mole*s};
957 nominal := 10.0{lb_mole*s};
958 END mole_sec;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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