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Fixed definition of milliwatts
1 (* ASCEND modelling environment
2 Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Carnegie Mellon University
3 Copyright (C) 1994-1997 Carnegie Mellon University
4 Copyright (C) 1990 Thomas Guthrie Epperly
5
6 The ASCEND Modeling Library is free software; you can redistribute
7 it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
8 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
9 version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
10
11 The ASCEND Modeling Library is distributed in hope that it
12 will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
13 warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
14 See the GNU General Public License for more details.
15
16 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
17 along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software
18 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
19 *)
20 PROVIDE "measures.a4l";
21 (*
22 This provides common unit definitions. The user may write additional
23 files of unit definitions particular to their problem or site.
24
25 This is a file defining the conversion factors ASCEND will recognize when
26 it sees them as {units}. Note that the assignment "x := 0.5 {100}" yields
27 x == 50, and that there are no 'offset conversions', e.g. "F=9/5C+32".
28
29 Please keep unit names to 20 characters or less as this makes life pretty.
30 This is not a hard limit however.
31
32 All ASCEND units are built up from base units for each dimension of
33 measurement. The base units are mostly the Systeme Internationale base
34 units, with a few additional ones to aid with legibility/checkability.
35
36 Unit Dim code Dimension Source
37 kg M mass SI
38 mol Q amount of substance SI
39 s T time SI
40 m L length SI
41 K TMP temperature SI
42 USD C currency non SI
43 A E electric current SI
44 cd LUM luminous intensity SI
45 rad P plane angle SI suggested
46 sr S solid angle SI suggested
47
48 Units for currency are selected arbitrarily to be USD, for US dollars,
49 being the dominant international currency at this time.
50
51 Original author: Tom Epperly, 1990.
52 Contributors: Ben Allan, John Pye.
53 *)
54
55 UNITS
56
57 (* SI multipliers *)
58
59 yocto = {10^-24};
60 zepto = {10^-21};
61 atto = {10^-18};
62 femto = {10^-15};
63 pico = {10^-12};
64 nano = {10^-9};
65 micro = {10^-6};
66 milli = {10^-3};
67 centi = {10^-2};
68 deci = {10^-1};
69 deka = {10.0};
70 hecta = {100.0};
71 kilo = {10^3};
72 mega = {10^6};
73 giga = {10^9};
74 tera = {10^12};
75 peta = {10^15};
76 exa = {10^18};
77 zetta = {10^21};
78 yotta = {10^24};
79
80 (* distance *)
81
82 meter = {m};
83 pc = {3.08374e+16*m};
84 parsec = {pc};
85 kpc = {kilo*pc};
86 Mpc = {mega*pc};
87 km = {kilo*m};
88 dm = {m/10};
89 cm = {m/100};
90 mm = {milli*m};
91 um = {micro*m};
92 nm = {nano*m};
93 kilometer = {km};
94 centimeter = {cm};
95 millimeter = {mm};
96 micron = {um};
97 nanometer = {nm};
98 angstrom = {m/1e10};
99 fermi = {m/1e15};
100
101 mi = {1609.344*m};
102 yd = {0.914412*m};
103 ft = {0.304804*m};
104 inch = {0.0254*m};
105 mile = {mi};
106 yard = {yd};
107 feet = {ft};
108 foot = {ft};
109 in = {inch};
110
111 (* mass *)
112
113 kilogram = {kg};
114 g = {kg/1000};
115 gram = {g};
116 mg = {g/1000};
117 milligram = {mg};
118 ug= {kilogram*1e-9};
119 microgram= {ug};
120 ng= {kilogram*1e-12};
121 nanogram= {ng};
122 pg= {kilogram*1e-15};
123 picogram= {pg};
124
125 tonne = {1000*kilogram}; (* reference on tonne: http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/appenB8.html *)
126 t = {tonne};
127 kilotonne = {kilo*tonne};
128 kt = {kilotonne};
129 megatonne = {mega*tonne};
130 Mt = {megatonne};
131 gigatonne = {giga*tonne};
132 Gt = {gigatonne};
133
134 amu = {1.661e-27*kilogram};
135 lbm = {4.535924e-1*kilogram};
136 ton = {lbm*2000};
137 oz = {0.028349525*kilogram};
138 slug = {14.5939*kilogram};
139
140 (* time *)
141
142 second = {s};
143 yr = {31557600*s};
144 wk = {604800*s};
145 d = {86400*s};
146 h = {3600*s};
147 min = {60*s};
148 sec = {s};
149 ms = {s/1000};
150 us = {s/1e6};
151 ns = {s/1e9};
152 ps = {s/1e12};
153 year = {yr};
154 week = {wk};
155 day = {d};
156 hour = {h};
157 hr={h};
158 minute = {min};
159 millisecond = {ms};
160 microsecond = {us};
161 nanosecond = {ns};
162 picosecond = {ps};
163
164 (* molecular quantities *)
165
166 mole = {mol};
167 kg_mole= {1000*mol};
168 g_mole = {mol};
169 gm_mole = {mol};
170 kmol = {kilo*mol};
171 mol = {mol};
172 mmol = {milli*mol};
173 millimole= {mmol};
174 umol = {micro*mol};
175 micromole= {umol};
176 lb_mole = {4.535924e+2*mol};
177
178 (* temperature *)
179
180 Kelvin = {K};
181 R = {5*K/9};
182 Rankine = {R};
183
184 (* money *)
185
186 (* PLEASE USE ISO 4127 CURRENCY CODES FOR ALL MONEY UNITS *)
187 currency = {USD};
188 CR = {USD};
189 credits= {USD};
190 (* the following two are historic and should not be used in future *)
191 USdollar = {USD};
192 US = {USD};
193
194 (* currencies according to yahoo.com, as at 11 Sep 2006 *)
195 AUD = {0.752400*USD};
196 GBP = {1.865000*USD};
197 EUR = {1.266499*USD};
198 JPY = {0.00856091*USD};
199
200 (* reciprocal time (frequency) *)
201
202 rev = {1.0};
203 cycle = {rev};
204 rpm = {rev/minute};
205 rps = {rev/second};
206 hertz = {cycle/second};
207 Hz = {hertz};
208
209 (* area *)
210
211 ha = {m^2*10000};
212 hectare= {ha};
213 acre= {m^2*4046.856};
214
215 (* volume *)
216
217 L = {m^3/1000};
218 l = {L};
219 litre = {L};
220 liter = {L};
221 mL = {L/1000};
222 ml = {L/1000};
223 ul = {L/1e6};
224 uL = {L/1e6};
225 milliliter = {ml};
226 millilitre = {mL};
227 microliter = {ul};
228 microlitre = {uL};
229
230 hogshead= {2.384809e-1*m^3};
231 cuft = {0.02831698*m^3};
232 impgal = {4.52837e-3*m^3};
233 gal = {3.785412e-3*m^3};
234 barrel = {42.0*gal};
235 gallon = {gal};
236 quart = {gal/4};
237 pint = {gal/8};
238 cup = {gal/16};
239 floz = {gal/128};
240
241 (* force *)
242
243 N = {kg*m/s^2};
244 newton = {N};
245 dyne = {N*1.0e-5};
246 EN = {1e18*N};
247 PN = {1e15*N};
248 TN = {1e12*N};
249 GN = {1e9*N};
250 MN = {1e6*N};
251 kN = {1000*N};
252 mN= {N*1e-3};
253 uN= {N*1e-6};
254 nN= {N*1e-9};
255 pN= {N*1e-12};
256 fN= {N*1e-15};
257 aN= {N*1e-18};
258 milliNewton= {mN};
259 microNewton= {uN};
260 nanoNewton= {nN};
261 picoNewton= {pN};
262 femtoNewton= {fN};
263 attoNewton= {aN};
264
265 lbf = {N*4.448221};
266 tonnef = {9.8* N/kg * 1 * t};
267 kgf = {9.8*N/kg * 1 * kg};
268
269 (* pressure *)
270
271 Pa = {kg/m/s^2};
272 pascal = {Pa};
273 kPa = {1e3*Pa};
274 bar = {1e5*Pa};
275 mbar = {1e2*Pa};
276 MPa = {1e6*Pa};
277 GPa = {1e9*Pa};
278
279 atm = {Pa*101325.0};
280 mmHg = {133.322*Pa};
281 torr = {133.322*Pa};
282 psia = {6894.733*Pa};
283 psi = {psia};
284 ftH2O = {2989*Pa};
285
286 (* energy *)
287
288 J = {kg*m^2/s^2};
289 joule = {J};
290 nJ= {J*1.0e-9};
291 uJ= {J*1.0e-6};
292 mJ= {J*1.0e-3};
293 kJ = {J * 1000};
294 MJ = {J * 1e6};
295 GJ = {J * 1e9};
296 TJ = {J * 1e12};
297 PJ = {J * 1e15};
298 milliJoule= {mJ};
299 microJoule= {uJ};
300 nanoJoule= {nJ};
301 erg = {J*1.0e-7};
302
303 BTU = {1055.056*J};
304 btu = {BTU}; (* this is the way it's written in most textbooks *)
305 pCu = {BTU * 1.8};
306 cal = {J*4.18393};
307 calorie = {cal};
308 kcal= {1000*cal};
309 Cal= {1000*cal};
310
311 (* power *)
312
313 W = {J/s};
314 EW = {exa*W};
315 PW = {peta*W};
316 TW = {tera*W};
317 GW = {giga*W};
318 MW = {mega*W};
319 kW = {kilo*W};
320 mW = {milli*W};
321 uW = {micro*W};
322 nW = {nano*W};
323 pW = {pico*W};
324 fW = {femto*W};
325 aW = {atto*W};
326 terawatt = {TW};
327 gigawatt = {GW};
328 megawatt = {MW};
329 kilowatt = {kW};
330 watt = {W};
331 milliwatt = {mW};
332 microwatt = {uW};
333 nanowatt = {nW};
334 picowatt = {pW};
335 femtowatt = {fW};
336 attowatt = {aW};
337 aWW= {1*EW}; (* <geekjoke>we could say Art has a lot of power</geekjoke> *)
338
339 Wh = {W*h};
340 kWh = {kW*h};
341
342 hp= {7.456998e+2*W};
343
344 (* absolute viscosity *)
345
346 poise = {Pa*s/10};
347 cP = {poise/100};
348
349 (* electric charge *)
350
351 C = {A*s};
352 coulomb = {C};
353 coul = {C};
354 mC = {0.001*C};
355 uC = {1e-6*C};
356 nC = {1e-9*C};
357 pC = {1e-12*C};
358
359 (* misc electro-magnetic fun *)
360
361 V = {kg*m^2/s^3/A};
362 F = {A^2*s^4/kg/m^2};
363 ohm = {kg*m^2/s^3/A^2};
364 mho = {A^2*s^3/kg/m^2};
365 S = {mho};
366 siemens = {S};
367 ampere = {A};
368 amp = {A};
369 volt = {V};
370 farad= {F};
371 mA= {A/1000};
372 uA= {A/1000000};
373 kV= {1000*V};
374 MV= {1e6*V};
375 mV= {V/1000};
376 mF = {0.001*F};
377 uF = {1e-6*F};
378 nF = {1e-9*F};
379 pF = {1e-12*F};
380 kohm = {1000*ohm};
381 Mohm = {1e6*ohm};
382 kS = {1000*S};
383 mS = {0.001*S};
384 uS = {1e-6*S};
385 Wb = {V*second};
386 weber = {Wb};
387 tesla = {Wb/m^2};
388 gauss = {1e-4*tesla};
389 H = {Wb/A};
390 henry = {H};
391 mH = {milli*H};
392 uH = {1e-6*H};
393
394 (*
395 * numeric constants of some interest
396 * to set a variable or constant to these, the code is (in the declarations)
397 * ATOM constant REFINES real; END constant;
398 * MODEL gizmo;
399 * x IS_A constant;
400 * x := 1 {PI};
401 * ...
402 *)
403 molecule = {1.0};
404 PI= {3.1415926535897932385}; (* Circumference/Diameter ratio *)
405 EULER_C = {0.57721566490153286}; (* euler gamma *)
406 GOLDEN_C = {1.618033988749894}; (* golden ratio *)
407 HBAR = {1.055e-34*J*s}; (* Reduced planck's constant *)
408 PLANCK_C = {2*PI*HBAR}; (* Planck's constant *)
409 LIGHT_C = {2.99793e8 * m/s}; (* Speed of light in vacuum *)
410 MU0 = {4e-7*PI*kg*m/C/C}; (* Permeability of free space *)
411 EPSILON0 = {1/LIGHT_C/LIGHT_C/MU0}; (* Permittivity of free space *)
412 BOLTZMAN_C = {1.3805e-23 * J/K}; (* Boltzman's constant *)
413 SIGMA_C = {5.670e-8 * W/m^2/K^4 }; (* Stefan-Boltzmann constant
414 - blackbody radiation *)
415 AVOGADRO_C = {6.022045e23 *molecule/mol};(* Avogadro's number of molecules *)
416 GRAVITY_C = {6.673e-11 * N*m*m/kg/kg}; (* Newtons gravitational constant *)
417 GAS_C = {BOLTZMAN_C*AVOGADRO_C}; (* Gas constant *)
418 INFINITY= {1.0e38}; (* damn big number *)
419 LIM_EXP= {709.78}; (* ln ( maxdouble ) *)
420 LIM_CUBE= {5.6438030941223618e101}; (* cbrt ( maxdouble ) *)
421 LIM_SQR= {1.0e154}; (* sqrt(maxdouble) *)
422
423 (* The following were swiped from C <math.h> *)
424 M_E= {2.7182818284590452354E0}; (* base e *)
425 M_LOG2E= {1.4426950408889634074E0}; (* log2(e) *)
426 M_LOG10E= {4.3429448190325182765E-1}; (* log10(e) *)
427 M_LN2= {6.9314718055994530942E-1}; (* ln(2) *)
428 M_LN10= {2.3025850929940456840E0}; (* ln(10) *)
429 M_PI= {3.1415926535897932385E0}; (* as PI, but for consistency *)
430 M_PI_2= {1.5707963267948966192E0}; (* PI/2 *)
431 M_PI_4= {7.8539816339744830962E-1}; (* PI/4 *)
432 M_1_PI= {3.1830988618379067154E-1}; (* 1/PI *)
433 M_2_PI= {6.3661977236758134308E-1}; (* 2/PI *)
434 M_2_SQRTPI= {1.1283791670955125739E0}; (* 2/sqrt(PI) *)
435 M_SQRT2= {1.4142135623730950488E0}; (* sqrt(2) *)
436 M_SQRT1_2= {7.0710678118654752440E-1}; (* 1/sqrt(2) *)
437
438 eCHARGE = {1.602e-19*C}; (* Charge of an electron *)
439 EARTH_G = {9.80665 * m/s/s}; (* Earth's gravitational field, somewhere *)
440 eMASS = {9.1095e-31*kg}; (* Electron rest mass, I suppose *)
441 pMASS = {1.67265e-27*kg}; (* Proton mass *)
442
443 (* constant based conversions *)
444
445 eV = {eCHARGE * V};
446 keV = {1000*eV};
447 MeV = {1e6*eV};
448 GeV = {1e9*eV};
449 TeV = {1e12*eV};
450 PeV = {1e15*eV};
451 EeV = {1e18*eV};
452
453 lyr = {LIGHT_C * yr}; (* Light-year *)
454
455 oersted = {gauss/MU0};
456
457 (* subtly dimensionless measures *)
458
459 radian = {rad};
460
461 steradian = {sr};
462 srad = {sr};
463 deg = {rad*1.74532925199433e-2};
464 degrees = {deg};
465 grad = {0.9*deg};
466 arcmin = {deg/60.0};
467 arcsec = {arcmin/60.0};
468
469 (* light quantities *)
470
471 candela = {cd};
472 lm = {cd*sr};
473 lumen = {lm};
474 lx = {lm/m^2};
475 lux= {lx};
476
477 (* misc rates *)
478
479 gpm = {gallon/min};
480
481 (* time variant conversions *)
482
483 MINIMUMWAGE = {5.15*USD/h}; (* Dec 2005, see http://www.dol.gov/ *)
484 (*
485 * conversions we'd like to see , but probably won't
486 * milliHelen = {beauty/ship};
487 * Helen = {documentation/project};
488 * who's helen?
489 * AscendWorldDomination = {big/estimate};
490 *)
491 END UNITS;

john.pye@anu.edu.au
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