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revision 1765 by jpye, Sat Apr 7 09:13:41 2007 UTC revision 1766 by jpye, Mon Apr 7 09:06:56 2008 UTC
# Line 1  Line 1 
1  #LyX 1.4.3 created this file. For more info see http://www.lyx.org/  #LyX 1.5.3 created this file. For more info see http://www.lyx.org/
2  \lyxformat 245  \lyxformat 276
3  \begin_document  \begin_document
4  \begin_header  \begin_header
5  \textclass book  \textclass book
# Line 8  Line 8 
8  \usepackage{lmodern}  \usepackage{lmodern}
9  \usepackage{color}  \usepackage{color}
10  \definecolor{darkred}{rgb}{0.55,0,0}  \definecolor{darkred}{rgb}{0.55,0,0}
11    \definecolor{darkgreen}{rgb}{0,0.55,0}
12    
13  \usepackage{listings}  \usepackage{listings}
14    
15  \lstdefinelanguage{ascend}{  \lstdefinelanguage{ascend}{
16    morekeywords=[1]{    morekeywords=[1]{
17       REQUIRE,IMPORT,       REQUIRE,IMPORT,NOTES,
18       ATOM,MODEL,METHOD,METHODS,       ATOM,MODEL,METHOD,METHODS,
19       UNIVERSAL,CONSTANT,DIMENSION,DEFAULT,       UNIVERSAL,CONSTANT,DIMENSION,DEFAULT,
20       END,FOR,CREATE,DO,EXTERNAL,         END,FOR,CREATE,DO,EXTERNAL,  
# Line 28  Line 29 
29       solver_var,integer_constant       solver_var,integer_constant
30    },    },
31    sensitive=true,    sensitive=true,
32    morecomment=[s]{(*}{*)},    morecomment=[s][\color{blue}]{(*}{*)},
33    morestring=[b]',    morestring=[b][\color{darkgreen}]',
34    morestring=[b]",    morestring=[b][\color{darkgreen}]",
35      morecomment=[s][\color{darkgreen}]{\{}{\}},
36  }  }
37    
38  \lstset{  \lstnewenvironment{ascend}
39    basicstyle=\ttfamily,    {\lstset{basicstyle=\ttfamily\small, keywordstyle=\color{darkred}}}
40    commentstyle=\color{blue},    {}
41    keywordstyle=\color{darkred},  
42    \lstdefinestyle{ascendlisting}{
43      style=ascendlisting,
44      basicstyle=\small\ttfamily,
45      numbers=left,
46      numbersep=5pt,
47      numberstyle=\tiny,
48      escapeinside={(*@}{@*)}
49      backgroundcolor=\color{lightgrey}
50  }  }
51  \end_preamble  \end_preamble
52  \language english  \language english
53  \inputencoding auto  \inputencoding auto
54  \fontscheme default  \font_roman default
55    \font_sans default
56    \font_typewriter default
57    \font_default_family default
58    \font_sc false
59    \font_osf false
60    \font_sf_scale 100
61    \font_tt_scale 100
62  \graphics default  \graphics default
63  \paperfontsize default  \paperfontsize default
64  \spacing single  \spacing single
65  \papersize a4paper  \papersize a4paper
66  \use_geometry false  \use_geometry false
67  \use_amsmath 2  \use_amsmath 2
68    \use_esint 0
69  \cite_engine basic  \cite_engine basic
70  \use_bibtopic false  \use_bibtopic false
71  \paperorientation portrait  \paperorientation portrait
# Line 60  Line 78 
78  \papersides 2  \papersides 2
79  \paperpagestyle default  \paperpagestyle default
80  \tracking_changes false  \tracking_changes false
81  \output_changes true  \output_changes false
82    \author ""
83  \end_header  \end_header
84    
85  \begin_body  \begin_body
86    
87  \begin_layout Chapter  \begin_layout Chapter
88  Vessel Model for Beginners  Vessel Model for Beginners
89  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{cha:model1}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
90    name "cha:model1"
91    
92  \end_inset  \end_inset
93    
# Line 115  and the next two chapters ( Line 135  and the next two chapters (
135  Chapter  Chapter
136  \noun off  \noun off
137    
138  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{cha:model2}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
139    reference "cha:model2"
140    
141  \end_inset  \end_inset
142    
# Line 124  Chapter Line 145  Chapter
145  Chapter  Chapter
146  \noun off  \noun off
147    
148  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{cha:model3}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
149    reference "cha:model3"
150    
151  \end_inset  \end_inset
152    
# Line 173  We are going to create and test an ASCEN Line 195  We are going to create and test an ASCEN
195   the metal in the sides and ends of the thin-walled cylindrical vessel   the metal in the sides and ends of the thin-walled cylindrical vessel
196  \emph default  \emph default
197    
198  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{vessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
199    name "vessel"
200    
201  \end_inset  \end_inset
202    
203    
204  \emph on  \emph on
205   shown in Figure  shown in Figure
206  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.thinWalledVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
207    reference "fig:model1.thinWalledVessel"
208    
209  \end_inset  \end_inset
210    
# Line 239  status open Line 263  status open
263    
264  \end_layout  \end_layout
265    
266  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
267    \begin_inset Caption
268    
269    \begin_layout Standard
270  A thin-walled cylindrical vessel with flat ends  A thin-walled cylindrical vessel with flat ends
271  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{fig:model1.thinWalledVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
272    name "fig:model1.thinWalledVessel"
273    
274    \end_inset
275    
276    
277    \end_layout
278    
279  \end_inset  \end_inset
280    
# Line 324  status collapsed Line 357  status collapsed
357  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
358  Chapter\InsetSpace ~  Chapter\InsetSpace ~
359    
360  \begin_inset LatexCommand \vref{cha:model2}  \begin_inset LatexCommand vref
361    reference "cha:model2"
362    
363  \end_inset  \end_inset
364    
# Line 348  status collapsed Line 382  status collapsed
382  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
383  Chapter\InsetSpace ~  Chapter\InsetSpace ~
384    
385  \begin_inset LatexCommand \vref{cha:model3}  \begin_inset LatexCommand vref
386    reference "cha:model3"
387    
388  \end_inset  \end_inset
389    
# Line 377  We shall introduce many of the features Line 412  We shall introduce many of the features
412    
413  \begin_layout Section  \begin_layout Section
414  Converting the word description into an ASCEND model  Converting the word description into an ASCEND model
415  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{sec:model1.converting-the-word}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
416    name "sec:model1.converting-the-word"
417    
418  \end_inset  \end_inset
419    
# Line 390  status collapsed Line 426  status collapsed
426    
427  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
428  an ASCEND model is a type  an ASCEND model is a type
429  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{type}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
430    name "type"
431    
432  \end_inset  \end_inset
433    
# Line 401  an ASCEND model is a type Line 438  an ASCEND model is a type
438    
439  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type definition.  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type definition.
440   To "solve a model," we make an instance   To "solve a model," we make an instance
441  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{instance}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
442    name "instance"
443    
444  \end_inset  \end_inset
445    
# Line 410  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type d Line 448  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type d
448   We will have to create our type definition as a text file using a text   We will have to create our type definition as a text file using a text
449   editor.   editor.
450   (Some simple text editors   (Some simple text editors
451  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{text editors}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
452    name "text editors"
453    
454  \end_inset  \end_inset
455    
# Line 419  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type d Line 458  Every ASCEND model is, in fact, a type d
458  emacs  emacs
459  \family default  \family default
460    
461  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{emacs}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
462    name "emacs"
463    
464  \end_inset  \end_inset
465    
466   and   and
467  \family typewriter  \family typewriter
468  gedit  gedit
469  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{gedit}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
470    name "gedit"
471    
472  \end_inset  \end_inset
473    
474    
475  \family default  \family default
476   on Linux, and Notepad   on Linux, and Notepad
477  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Notepad}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
478    name "Notepad"
479    
480  \end_inset  \end_inset
481    
482   and TextPad   and TextPad
483  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{TextPad}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
484    name "TextPad"
485    
486  \end_inset  \end_inset
487    
# Line 449  gedit Line 492  gedit
492  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
493  We need first to decide the parts to our model.  We need first to decide the parts to our model.
494   In this case we know that we need the variables   In this case we know that we need the variables
495  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{variables, vessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
496    name "variables, vessel"
497    
498  \end_inset  \end_inset
499    
500   listed in Table   listed in Table
501  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.variablesVesselModel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
502    reference "tab:model1.variablesVesselModel"
503    
504  \end_inset  \end_inset
505    
# Line 471  wide false Line 516  wide false
516  sideways false  sideways false
517  status open  status open
518    
519  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
520    \begin_inset Caption
521    
522    \begin_layout Standard
523  Variables required for model  Variables required for model
524  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{tab:model1.variablesVesselModel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
525    name "tab:model1.variablesVesselModel"
526    
527    \end_inset
528    
529    
530    \end_layout
531    
532  \end_inset  \end_inset
533    
# Line 755  We should be interested in the volume of Line 809  We should be interested in the volume of
809    
810  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
811  We add the variables in Table  We add the variables in Table
812  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
813    reference "tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel"
814    
815  \end_inset  \end_inset
816    
# Line 770  wide false Line 825  wide false
825  sideways false  sideways false
826  status open  status open
827    
828  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
829    \begin_inset Caption
830    
831    \begin_layout Standard
832  Some more variables  Some more variables
833  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{variables,  vessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
834    name "variables,  vessel"
835    
836  \end_inset  \end_inset
837    
838   required for vessel model   required for vessel model
839  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
840    name "tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel"
841    
842    \end_inset
843    
844    
845    \end_layout
846    
847  \end_inset  \end_inset
848    
# Line 1092  We believe that no one should create a m Line 1157  We believe that no one should create a m
1157   Grant us our beliefs.   Grant us our beliefs.
1158   We have created in the ASCEND system a library of variable and constant   We have created in the ASCEND system a library of variable and constant
1159   types called atoms.a4l   types called atoms.a4l
1160  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{atoms.a4l}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1161    name "atoms.a4l"
1162    
1163  \end_inset  \end_inset
1164    
# Line 1103  We believe that no one should create a m Line 1169  We believe that no one should create a m
1169  The file type "  The file type "
1170  \family typewriter  \family typewriter
1171  .a4l  .a4l
1172  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{a4l}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1173    name "a4l"
1174    
1175  \end_inset  \end_inset
1176    
1177    
1178  \family default  \family default
1179  " designates it to be an ASCEND IV library file  " designates it to be an ASCEND IV library file
1180  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{library file}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1181    name "library file"
1182    
1183  \end_inset  \end_inset
1184    
1185  .  .
1186   Double-click on this link to see the approximately 150 different types   Double-click on this link to see the approximately 150 different types
1187   ranging from universal constants   ranging from universal constants
1188  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{universal constants}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1189    name "universal constants"
1190    
1191  \end_inset  \end_inset
1192    
# Line 1148  angle Line 1217  angle
1217   You will find detailed instructions for how to make your own variable type   You will find detailed instructions for how to make your own variable type
1218   library in Chapter\InsetSpace ~   library in Chapter\InsetSpace ~
1219    
1220  \begin_inset LatexCommand \vref{cha:atoms}  \begin_inset LatexCommand vref
1221    reference "cha:atoms"
1222    
1223  \end_inset  \end_inset
1224    
# Line 1171  ASCEND considers variable and constant t Line 1241  ASCEND considers variable and constant t
1241   They cannot contain equations, for example.   They cannot contain equations, for example.
1242   Thus ASCEND calls such a type definition an atom rather than a model.   Thus ASCEND calls such a type definition an atom rather than a model.
1243   Figure   Figure
1244  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.atomVolume}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
1245    reference "fig:model1.atomVolume"
1246    
1247  \end_inset  \end_inset
1248    
# Line 1188  sideways false Line 1259  sideways false
1259  status open  status open
1260    
1261  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1262  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{ATOM}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1263    name "ATOM"
1264    
1265  \end_inset  \end_inset
1266    
# Line 1261  end{lstlisting} Line 1333  end{lstlisting}
1333    
1334  \end_layout  \end_layout
1335    
1336  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
1337    \begin_inset Caption
1338    
1339    \begin_layout Standard
1340  A typical type definition, called an atom, used to define variable and constant  A typical type definition, called an atom, used to define variable and constant
1341   types   types
1342  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{fig:model1.atomVolume}  \begin_inset LatexCommand label
1343    name "fig:model1.atomVolume"
1344    
1345    \end_inset
1346    
1347    
1348    \end_layout
1349    
1350  \end_inset  \end_inset
1351    
# Line 1278  A typical type definition, called an ato Line 1359  A typical type definition, called an ato
1359    
1360  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1361  The definition starts by stating that volume is a specialization of  The definition starts by stating that volume is a specialization of
1362  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{solver\_var}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1363    name "solver\\_var"
1364    
1365  \end_inset  \end_inset
1366    
# Line 1296  solver_var Line 1378  solver_var
1378  real  real
1379  \family default  \family default
1380    
1381  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{real}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1382    name "real"
1383    
1384  \end_inset  \end_inset
1385    
# Line 1311  status collapsed Line 1394  status collapsed
1394    
1395  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1396  dimensions  dimensions
1397  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{dimensions}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1398    name "dimensions"
1399    
1400  \end_inset  \end_inset
1401    
1402   and units   and units
1403  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{units}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1404    name "units"
1405    
1406  \end_inset  \end_inset
1407    
# Line 1380  One may change the values for the bounds Line 1465  One may change the values for the bounds
1465    
1466  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1467  We now can understand the last column in Table  We now can understand the last column in Table
1468  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.variablesVesselModel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
1469    reference "tab:model1.variablesVesselModel"
1470    
1471  \end_inset  \end_inset
1472    
# Line 1391  We now can understand the last column in Line 1477  We now can understand the last column in
1477   Table   Table
1478  \noun off  \noun off
1479    
1480  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
1481    reference "tab:model1.moreVariablesVessel"
1482    
1483  \end_inset  \end_inset
1484    
# Line 1419  ft^3 Line 1506  ft^3
1506    
1507  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1508  In Figure  In Figure
1509  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.universalConstant}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
1510    reference "fig:model1.universalConstant"
1511    
1512  \end_inset  \end_inset
1513    
# Line 1439  circle_constant Line 1527  circle_constant
1527  \family default  \family default
1528  \noun off  \noun off
1529    
1530  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{circle\_constant}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1531    name "circle\\_constant"
1532    
1533  \end_inset  \end_inset
1534    
# Line 1450  real_constant Line 1539  real_constant
1539  \family default  \family default
1540  \noun off  \noun off
1541    
1542  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{real\_constant}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1543    name "real\\_constant"
1544    
1545  \end_inset  \end_inset
1546    
# Line 1458  real_constant Line 1548  real_constant
1548  \family typewriter  \family typewriter
1549  \noun default  \noun default
1550  1 {PI  1 {PI
1551  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{PI}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1552    name "PI"
1553    
1554  \end_inset  \end_inset
1555    
# Line 1466  real_constant Line 1557  real_constant
1557  \family default  \family default
1558  \noun off  \noun off
1559    
1560  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{\{PI\}}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1561    name "\\{PI\\}"
1562    
1563  \end_inset  \end_inset
1564    
# Line 1483  real_constant Line 1575  real_constant
1575  Chapter  Chapter
1576  \noun off  \noun off
1577    
1578  \begin_inset LatexCommand \vref{cha:units}  \begin_inset LatexCommand vref
1579    reference "cha:units"
1580    
1581  \end_inset  \end_inset
1582    
# Line 1500  status collapsed Line 1593  status collapsed
1593    
1594  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1595  universal constant  universal constant
1596  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{universal constant}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1597    name "universal constant"
1598    
1599  \end_inset  \end_inset
1600    
# Line 1548  end{ascend} Line 1642  end{ascend}
1642    
1643  \end_layout  \end_layout
1644    
1645  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
1646  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{fig:model1.universalConstant}  \begin_inset Caption
1647    
1648    \begin_layout Standard
1649    \begin_inset LatexCommand label
1650    name "fig:model1.universalConstant"
1651    
1652  \end_inset  \end_inset
1653    
# Line 1569  circle_constant; Line 1667  circle_constant;
1667    
1668  \end_layout  \end_layout
1669    
1670    \end_inset
1671    
1672    
1673    \end_layout
1674    
1675  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1676  We shall in fact find this constant useful in our program, and we can either  We shall in fact find this constant useful in our program, and we can either
1677   introduce a constant with this value or simply use the value   introduce a constant with this value or simply use the value
# Line 1582  We shall in fact find this constant usef Line 1685  We shall in fact find this constant usef
1685  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1686  It is time to write our first version for the model, which we do in Figure  It is time to write our first version for the model, which we do in Figure
1687    
1688  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.modelVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
1689    reference "fig:model1.modelVessel"
1690    
1691  \end_inset  \end_inset
1692    
# Line 1591  It is time to write our first version fo Line 1695  It is time to write our first version fo
1695   (   (
1696  \noun default  \noun default
1697  available as  available as
1698  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{vesselPlain.a4c}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1699    name "vesselPlain.a4c"
1700    
1701  \end_inset  \end_inset
1702    
# Line 1616  REQUIRE Line 1721  REQUIRE
1721  \family default  \family default
1722  \noun off  \noun off
1723    
1724  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{REQUIRE}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1725    name "REQUIRE"
1726    
1727  \end_inset  \end_inset
1728    
# Line 1796  end{ascend} Line 1902  end{ascend}
1902    
1903  \end_layout  \end_layout
1904    
1905  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
1906  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{fig:model1.modelVessel}  \begin_inset Caption
1907    
1908    \begin_layout Standard
1909    \begin_inset LatexCommand label
1910    name "fig:model1.modelVessel"
1911    
1912  \end_inset  \end_inset
1913    
# Line 1814  vessel Line 1924  vessel
1924    
1925  \end_layout  \end_layout
1926    
1927    \end_inset
1928    
1929    
1930    \end_layout
1931    
1932  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
1933  Our model definition has the following structure for it so far:  Our model definition has the following structure for it so far:
1934  \end_layout  \end_layout
# Line 1824  Our model definition has the following s Line 1939  Our model definition has the following s
1939  MODEL  MODEL
1940  \family default  \family default
1941    
1942  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{MODEL}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1943    name "MODEL"
1944    
1945  \end_inset  \end_inset
1946    
# Line 1845  equations Line 1961  equations
1961  END  END
1962  \family default  \family default
1963    
1964  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{END}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
1965    name "END"
1966    
1967  \end_inset  \end_inset
1968    
# Line 1908  When we compile new models, we need a pl Line 2025  When we compile new models, we need a pl
2025  models  models
2026  \family default  \family default
2027    
2028  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{models}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2029    name "models"
2030    
2031  \end_inset  \end_inset
2032    
# Line 1956  status open Line 2074  status open
2074    
2075  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2076  rather put your things into the ascdata  rather put your things into the ascdata
2077  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{ascdata}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2078    name "ascdata"
2079    
2080  \end_inset  \end_inset
2081    
# Line 1977  ascdata Line 2096  ascdata
2096  ascdata  ascdata
2097  \family default  \family default
2098   into your home directory   into your home directory
2099  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{id:#id(pgfId-1007944)}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
2100    reference "id:#id(pgfId-1007944)"
2101    
2102  \end_inset  \end_inset
2103    
# Line 2039  create a text file containing the model Line 2159  create a text file containing the model
2159  \end_inset  \end_inset
2160    
2161  Next open an editor  Next open an editor
2162  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{text editors}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2163    name "text editors"
2164    
2165  \end_inset  \end_inset
2166    
# Line 2048  Next open an editor Line 2169  Next open an editor
2169  emacs  emacs
2170  \family default  \family default
2171    
2172  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{emacs}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2173    name "emacs"
2174    
2175  \end_inset  \end_inset
2176    
# Line 2057  emacs Line 2179  emacs
2179  gedit  gedit
2180  \family default  \family default
2181    
2182  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{gedit}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2183    name "gedit"
2184    
2185  \end_inset  \end_inset
2186    
# Line 2066  gedit Line 2189  gedit
2189  vi  vi
2190  \family default  \family default
2191    
2192  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{vi}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2193    name "vi"
2194    
2195  \end_inset  \end_inset
2196    
# Line 2075  vi Line 2199  vi
2199  vim  vim
2200  \family default  \family default
2201    
2202  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{vim}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2203    name "vim"
2204    
2205  \end_inset  \end_inset
2206    
2207  , Notepad  , Notepad
2208  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Notepad}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2209    name "Notepad"
2210    
2211  \end_inset  \end_inset
2212    
2213   or TextPad   or TextPad
2214  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{TextPad}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2215    name "TextPad"
2216    
2217  \end_inset  \end_inset
2218    
2219  .  .
2220   Now type in or, better yet, cut-and-paste the statements in Figure   Now type in or, better yet, cut-and-paste the statements in Figure
2221  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.modelVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
2222    reference "fig:model1.modelVessel"
2223    
2224  \end_inset  \end_inset
2225    
# Line 2147  vesselPlain.a4c Line 2275  vesselPlain.a4c
2275   you should not -- and change it to "   you should not -- and change it to "
2276  \family typewriter  \family typewriter
2277  .a4c  .a4c
2278  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{a4c}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2279    name "a4c"
2280    
2281  \end_inset  \end_inset
2282    
# Line 2175  vesselPlain.a4c Line 2304  vesselPlain.a4c
2304  \family default  \family default
2305   stored in your ASCEND/models/vessel subdirectory.   stored in your ASCEND/models/vessel subdirectory.
2306   It should contain precisely the statements in Figure   It should contain precisely the statements in Figure
2307  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{fig:model1.modelVessel}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
2308    reference "fig:model1.modelVessel"
2309    
2310  \end_inset  \end_inset
2311    
# Line 2223  ascend4 Line 2353  ascend4
2353   or so they overlap very little.   or so they overlap very little.
2354   Resize them if you want to.   Resize them if you want to.
2355   You might start by putting the one called Script   You might start by putting the one called Script
2356  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Script window}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2357    name "Script window"
2358    
2359  \end_inset  \end_inset
2360    
2361   in the upper left, the one called Library   in the upper left, the one called Library
2362  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Library window}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2363    name "Library window"
2364    
2365  \end_inset  \end_inset
2366    
2367   in the upper right and the one called Console   in the upper right and the one called Console
2368  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Console}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2369    name "Console"
2370    
2371  \end_inset  \end_inset
2372    
# Line 2285  hey, where did that window go? I want it Line 2418  hey, where did that window go? I want it
2418  \end_inset  \end_inset
2419    
2420  If you ever lose a window, open the Script window and under the Tools  If you ever lose a window, open the Script window and under the Tools
2421  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Tools}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2422    name "Tools"
2423    
2424  \end_inset  \end_inset
2425    
# Line 2302  status collapsed Line 2436  status collapsed
2436    
2437  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2438  How do I quit  How do I quit
2439  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{quit ASCEND}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2440    name "quit ASCEND"
2441    
2442  \end_inset  \end_inset
2443    
# Line 2312  How do I quit Line 2447  How do I quit
2447  \end_inset  \end_inset
2448    
2449  To exit  To exit
2450  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{exit ASCEND}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2451    name "exit ASCEND"
2452    
2453  \end_inset  \end_inset
2454    
# Line 2327  status collapsed Line 2463  status collapsed
2463    
2464  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2465  saving  saving
2466  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{saving window position}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2467    name "saving window position"
2468    
2469  \end_inset  \end_inset
2470    
2471   window positions   window positions
2472  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{window position}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2473    name "window position"
2474    
2475  \end_inset  \end_inset
2476    
# Line 2344  saving Line 2482  saving
2482  ASCEND will not remember your window locations automatically.  ASCEND will not remember your window locations automatically.
2483   If you like where you have placed the windows for ASCEND on your display,   If you like where you have placed the windows for ASCEND on your display,
2484   go to the Script window and select 'Save all appearances   go to the Script window and select 'Save all appearances
2485  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{window locations, save}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2486    name "window locations, save"
2487    
2488  \end_inset  \end_inset
2489    
2490    
2491  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{appearances, save all}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2492    name "appearances, save all"
2493    
2494  \end_inset  \end_inset
2495    
2496  ' under the View  ' under the View
2497  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{View}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2498    name "View"
2499    
2500  \end_inset  \end_inset
2501    
# Line 2376  We shall start with the Library window i Line 2517  We shall start with the Library window i
2517   This window provides you with the tools to load and compile files containing   This window provides you with the tools to load and compile files containing
2518   type definitions.   type definitions.
2519   You can also display   You can also display
2520  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{display}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2521    name "display"
2522    
2523  \end_inset  \end_inset
2524    
# Line 2396  use the left mouse button unless we tell Line 2538  use the left mouse button unless we tell
2538    
2539  Let's load your file.  Let's load your file.
2540   Under the File button select the 'Read types from File   Under the File button select the 'Read types from File
2541  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Read Types from File}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2542    name "Read Types from File"
2543    
2544  \end_inset  \end_inset
2545    
# Line 2452  status open Line 2595  status open
2595    
2596  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2597  Do not ignore the diagnostics  Do not ignore the diagnostics
2598  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{diagnostics}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2599    name "diagnostics"
2600    
2601  \end_inset  \end_inset
2602    
# Line 2467  If the Console window in the lower right Line 2611  If the Console window in the lower right
2611  REQUIRE  REQUIRE
2612  \family default  \family default
2613    
2614  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{REQUIRE}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2615    name "REQUIRE"
2616    
2617  \end_inset  \end_inset
2618    
# Line 2492  While loading the files containing these Line 2637  While loading the files containing these
2637   at the syntax and will give you all kinds of diagnostic messages in the   at the syntax and will give you all kinds of diagnostic messages in the
2638   Console window (lower right) if you have done something wrong.   Console window (lower right) if you have done something wrong.
2639   It will also at times spew out some warning messages   It will also at times spew out some warning messages
2640  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{warning messages}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2641    name "warning messages"
2642    
2643  \end_inset  \end_inset
2644    
# Line 2509  You should consider heeding the warnings Line 2655  You should consider heeding the warnings
2655   However, there are times when we issue a warning but everything will work,   However, there are times when we issue a warning but everything will work,
2656   and you will think we were not too clever.   and you will think we were not too clever.
2657   Our response: better modeling style   Our response: better modeling style
2658  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{modeling style}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2659    name "modeling style"
2660    
2661  \end_inset  \end_inset
2662    
# Line 2523  status collapsed Line 2670  status collapsed
2670    
2671  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2672  how do I jump  how do I jump
2673  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{jump to line}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2674    name "jump to line"
2675    
2676  \end_inset  \end_inset
2677    
2678    
2679  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{line numbers}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2680    name "line numbers"
2681    
2682  \end_inset  \end_inset
2683    
# Line 2562  status collapsed Line 2711  status collapsed
2711    
2712  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2713  reloading a file  reloading a file
2714  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{reloading a file}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2715    name "reloading a file"
2716    
2717  \end_inset  \end_inset
2718    
2719    
2720  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{file, reloading}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2721    name "file, reloading"
2722    
2723  \end_inset  \end_inset
2724    
# Line 2596  displaying the code Line 2747  displaying the code
2747  You can display the code you have written.  You can display the code you have written.
2748   Select the model vessel in the right window of the Library.   Select the model vessel in the right window of the Library.
2749   Then under the Display   Then under the Display
2750  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Display  window}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2751    name "Display  window"
2752    
2753  \end_inset  \end_inset
2754    
# Line 2620  v Line 2772  v
2772    
2773  Okay, you have your file loaded without getting any diagnostics.  Okay, you have your file loaded without getting any diagnostics.
2774   You are ready to compile   You are ready to compile
2775  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{compile}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2776    name "compile"
2777    
2778  \end_inset  \end_inset
2779    
# Line 2657  status collapsed Line 2810  status collapsed
2810    
2811  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2812  and pass the instance  and pass the instance
2813  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{instance}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2814    name "instance"
2815    
2816  \end_inset  \end_inset
2817    
2818   to the Browser   to the Browser
2819  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Browser}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2820    name "Browser"
2821    
2822  \end_inset  \end_inset
2823    
# Line 2677  v IS A vessel Line 2832  v IS A vessel
2832  \family default  \family default
2833   in the bottom of the Library window.   in the bottom of the Library window.
2834   Then under the Export   Then under the Export
2835  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Export}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2836    name "Export"
2837    
2838  \end_inset  \end_inset
2839    
2840   button, select 'Simulation to Browser   button, select 'Simulation to Browser
2841  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Export Simulation to Browser}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2842    name "Export Simulation to Browser"
2843    
2844  \end_inset  \end_inset
2845    
# Line 2751  status collapsed Line 2908  status collapsed
2908    
2909  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2910  included flags  included flags
2911  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{included flags}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2912    name "included flags"
2913    
2914  \end_inset  \end_inset
2915    
2916    
2917  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{flag, included}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2918    name "flag, included"
2919    
2920  \end_inset  \end_inset
2921    
# Line 2783  FALSE Line 2942  FALSE
2942  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
2943  If you wish to display the current value for this flag, pick 'Display Atom  If you wish to display the current value for this flag, pick 'Display Atom
2944   Values   Values
2945  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Display Atom Values}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2946    name "Display Atom Values"
2947    
2948  \end_inset  \end_inset
2949    
# Line 2819  DV Line 2979  DV
2979    
2980  \begin_layout Section  \begin_layout Section
2981  Solving  Solving
2982  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Solving}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
2983    name "Solving"
2984    
2985  \end_inset  \end_inset
2986    
# Line 2837  v Line 2998  v
2998  , make it the current object (it alone should be listed in the upper left  , make it the current object (it alone should be listed in the upper left
2999   window of the Browser).   window of the Browser).
3000   Then, under the Export   Then, under the Export
3001  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Export to Solver}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3002    name "Export to Solver"
3003    
3004  \end_inset  \end_inset
3005    
3006   menu, select 'to Solver'.   menu, select 'to Solver'.
3007   The Solver window will open, along with a smaller window labeled Eligible   The Solver window will open, along with a smaller window labeled Eligible
3008  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{window, Eligible}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3009    name "window, Eligible"
3010    
3011  \end_inset  \end_inset
3012    
3013    
3014  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Eligible window}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3015    name "Eligible window"
3016    
3017  \end_inset  \end_inset
3018    
# Line 2866  status collapsed Line 3030  status collapsed
3030    
3031  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
3032  if ASCEND stops responding  if ASCEND stops responding
3033  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{responding, ASCEND stops}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3034    name "responding, ASCEND stops"
3035    
3036  \end_inset  \end_inset
3037    
3038  , hunt down one of those "nasty" windows with a "yellow lock  , hunt down one of those "nasty" windows with a "yellow lock
3039  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{yellow lock}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3040    name "yellow lock"
3041    
3042  \end_inset  \end_inset
3043    
# Line 2909  status open Line 3075  status open
3075    
3076  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
3077  is our problem well-posed  is our problem well-posed
3078  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{well-posed}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3079    name "well-posed"
3080    
3081  \end_inset  \end_inset
3082    
# Line 2928  v Line 3095  v
3095   has 6 relations defining it and that all are equalities and included.   has 6 relations defining it and that all are equalities and included.
3096   It has no inequalities.   It has no inequalities.
3097   On the right side we see there are 10 variables and all are 'free   On the right side we see there are 10 variables and all are 'free
3098  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{free variables}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3099    name "free variables"
3100    
3101  \end_inset  \end_inset
3102    
# Line 2936  v Line 3104  v
3104   Hmm, 6 equations in 10 variables.   Hmm, 6 equations in 10 variables.
3105   Something is wrong here.   Something is wrong here.
3106   For a well-posed problem, you want 6 equations in 6 variables (i.e., square   For a well-posed problem, you want 6 equations in 6 variables (i.e., square
3107  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{square}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3108    name "square"
3109    
3110  \end_inset  \end_inset
3111    
3112  ).  ).
3113   ASCEND reports that the system is underspecified   ASCEND reports that the system is underspecified
3114  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{underspecified}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3115    name "underspecified"
3116    
3117  \end_inset  \end_inset
3118    
3119   by 4.   by 4.
3120   This means you need to pick four of the variables and declare them to be   This means you need to pick four of the variables and declare them to be
3121   fixed   fixed
3122  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{fixed}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3123    name "fixed"
3124    
3125  \end_inset  \end_inset
3126    
# Line 2983  Okay, the small help such as needed here Line 3154  Okay, the small help such as needed here
3154   structure of the equations.   structure of the equations.
3155   The variables it lists are those that can be fixed   The variables it lists are those that can be fixed
3156  \emph on  \emph on
3157  without  without
3158  \emph default  \emph default
3159  the system becoming numerically singular.   the system becoming numerically singular.
3160   So any variables that are not shown   So any variables that are not shown
3161  \emph on  \emph on
3162  cannot possibly  cannot possibly
# Line 3074  wall_thickness Line 3245  wall_thickness
3245   The Solver window now says this problem is square (i.e., it has 6 equations   The Solver window now says this problem is square (i.e., it has 6 equations
3246   in the same number of unknowns).   in the same number of unknowns).
3247   Table   Table
3248  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.variableFixed}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
3249    reference "tab:model1.variableFixed"
3250    
3251  \end_inset  \end_inset
3252    
# Line 3089  wide false Line 3261  wide false
3261  sideways false  sideways false
3262  status open  status open
3263    
3264  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
3265  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{tab:model1.variableFixed}  \begin_inset Caption
3266    
3267    \begin_layout Standard
3268    \begin_inset LatexCommand label
3269    name "tab:model1.variableFixed"
3270    
3271  \end_inset  \end_inset
3272    
3273  Variables we have fixed  Variables we have fixed
3274  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{fixed variables}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3275    name "fixed variables"
3276    
3277    \end_inset
3278    
3279    
3280    \end_layout
3281    
3282  \end_inset  \end_inset
3283    
# Line 3197  Toward the bottom right of the Line 3379  Toward the bottom right of the
3379  Solver  Solver
3380  \series default  \series default
3381   window, we see there are 6 "blocks   window, we see there are 6 "blocks
3382  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{blocks}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3383    name "blocks"
3384    
3385  \end_inset  \end_inset
3386    
# Line 3226  status open Line 3409  status open
3409    
3410  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
3411  displaying the incidence matrix  displaying the incidence matrix
3412  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{incidence matrix}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3413    name "incidence matrix"
3414    
3415  \end_inset  \end_inset
3416    
# Line 3238  displaying the incidence matrix Line 3422  displaying the incidence matrix
3422  Can we see what ASCEND has just discovered? It turns out we can (we would  Can we see what ASCEND has just discovered? It turns out we can (we would
3423   not have asked if we could not).   not have asked if we could not).
3424   Under the Display menu on the Solver, select the 'Incidence matrix tool   Under the Display menu on the Solver, select the 'Incidence matrix tool
3425  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{incidence matrix tool}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3426    name "incidence matrix tool"
3427    
3428  \end_inset  \end_inset
3429    
# Line 3246  Can we see what ASCEND has just discover Line 3431  Can we see what ASCEND has just discover
3431   A window pops open showing us the incidence of variables in the equations   A window pops open showing us the incidence of variables in the equations
3432   and display them in the order that ASCEND has found to solve them, also   and display them in the order that ASCEND has found to solve them, also
3433   known as a sparsity matrix   known as a sparsity matrix
3434  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{sparsity matrix}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3435    name "sparsity matrix"
3436    
3437  \end_inset  \end_inset
3438    
3439   or sparsity pattern   or sparsity pattern
3440  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{sparsity pattern}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3441    name "sparsity pattern"
3442    
3443  \end_inset  \end_inset
3444    
# Line 3325  v Line 3512  v
3512  \family default  \family default
3513   remains the current object (it alone is in the upper left window).   remains the current object (it alone is in the upper left window).
3514   Under the Find menu select 'by Type   Under the Find menu select 'by Type
3515  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Find by Type}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3516    name "Find by Type"
3517    
3518  \end_inset  \end_inset
3519    
# Line 3381  D Line 3569  D
3569   Put in the value 4 in the left window and ft in the right.   Put in the value 4 in the left window and ft in the right.
3570   Continue by putting in the values for the variables as listed in Table   Continue by putting in the values for the variables as listed in Table
3571    
3572  \begin_inset LatexCommand \ref{tab:model1.valuesFixedVars}  \begin_inset LatexCommand ref
3573    reference "tab:model1.valuesFixedVars"
3574    
3575  \end_inset  \end_inset
3576    
# Line 3407  wide false Line 3596  wide false
3596  sideways false  sideways false
3597  status open  status open
3598    
3599  \begin_layout Caption  \begin_layout Standard
3600  \begin_inset LatexCommand \label{tab:model1.valuesFixedVars}  \begin_inset Caption
3601    
3602    \begin_layout Standard
3603    \begin_inset LatexCommand label
3604    name "tab:model1.valuesFixedVars"
3605    
3606  \end_inset  \end_inset
3607    
3608  Values to use for fixed variables  Values to use for fixed variables
3609  \end_layout  \end_layout
3610    
3611    \end_inset
3612    
3613    
3614    \end_layout
3615    
3616  \begin_layout Standard  \begin_layout Standard
3617  \begin_inset Tabular  \begin_inset Tabular
3618  <lyxtabular version="3" rows="5" columns="3">  <lyxtabular version="3" rows="5" columns="3">
# Line 3722  Measuring units'. Line 3920  Measuring units'.
3920  Units  Units
3921  \series default  \series default
3922   window   window
3923  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Units window}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3924    name "Units window"
3925    
3926  \end_inset  \end_inset
3927    
3928    
3929  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{window, Units}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
3930    name "window, Units"
3931    
3932  \end_inset  \end_inset
3933    
# Line 3799  returning to a consistent set of units Line 3999  returning to a consistent set of units
3999  \end_inset  \end_inset
4000    
4001  When you are done, you may wish to return to a consistent set, such as SI  When you are done, you may wish to return to a consistent set, such as SI
4002  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{SI}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
4003    name "SI"
4004    
4005  \end_inset  \end_inset
4006    
# Line 3840  vessel_volume Line 4041  vessel_volume
4041  D  D
4042  \emph default  \emph default
4043  , one of which we will have to "unfix  , one of which we will have to "unfix
4044  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{unfix}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
4045    name "unfix"
4046    
4047  \end_inset  \end_inset
4048    
# Line 3919  Browser Line 4121  Browser
4121  \begin_layout Itemize  \begin_layout Itemize
4122  Export v to the Solver again by selecting to Solver under the Export button.  Export v to the Solver again by selecting to Solver under the Export button.
4123   A window entitled Overspecified   A window entitled Overspecified
4124  \begin_inset LatexCommand \index{Overspecified}  \begin_inset LatexCommand index
4125    name "Overspecified"
4126    
4127  \end_inset  \end_inset
4128    

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john.pye@anu.edu.au
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